Quality of protein in milk replacers for young calves. 2. Effects of heat treatment of skim milk powder and fat levels on calf growth, feed intake and nitrogen balance

Lister, E.E.; Emmons, D.B.

Canadian Journal of Animal Science 56(2): 327-333


ISSN/ISBN: 0008-3984
Accession: 000474686

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2. Three spray-dried powders were prepared after heating skimmed milk for 30 min at 60 deg (LT), 73.9 deg (MT) or 85 deg C (HT). Each was reconstituted to 2 concentrations of dietary fat and given to 5 or 6 calves for 26 days after purchase at about 1 week of age. Calves given the HT skimmed milk had significantly (p<0.05) higher incidence of diarrhoea and slower rate of gain over 19 days on test than those on the MT and LT milks. Subsequently growth rate was unaffected by the skimmed milk source and there were interactions of fat content with skimmed milk source. The high fat content, 22.2% of dietary DM, resulted in a higher incidence of alopecia than in calves receiving fat 16.2% of DM. Nutrient digestibilities and N balance, measured from day 20 to day 26, were unaffected by skimmed milk treatments or fat concentrations. This experiment indicated that young calves, less than 3 weeks of age, require a diet based on skimmed milk that has not been severely heat-treated and the curd formation is a suitable index of quality for such milk replacer diet. Where control diets for milk-replacer studies are designated "all milk protein", it is important for correct interpretation to define their curd-forming characteristics. For older calves, coagulation appears not to be a requirement.