Teratogenicity of patulin and patulin adducts formed with cysteine
Ciegler, A.; Beckwith, A.C.; Jackson, L.K.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 31(5): 664-667
The mean lethal dose of patulin for the chicken embryo injected in the air cell before incubation was determined to be 68.7 mu g and that for the 4-day-old embryo 2.35 mu g. Both patulin (1-2 mu g/egg) and the reaction mixture between patulin and cysteine (15-150 mu g of patulin equivalents) were teratogenic to the embryo. At least 2 ninhydrin-negative and 4 ninhydrin-positive products were formed during the latter reaction.