The orange tortrix, Tortrix capensana Wlk. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) , as a pest of Citrus, with special reference to its significance in orchards under integrated biological control

Matthew, J.

Entomological Society of Southern Africa Proceedings of the First Congress of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 1974 Stellenbosch: 221-234

1975


Accession: 000548153

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Abstract
The biology, injuriousness and control of Tortrix capensana (Wlk.), a pest that has become of economic importance on Citrus since the introduction of integrated control methods at Zebediela, South Africa, in the early 1960's, are described from observations in the laboratory and field in 1972-74. Larvae damaged the leaves, blossoms and fruit, causing unsightly blemishes on the skin of the fruit, and fruit losses. The flight period of adults in early October was followed by infestation in orchards under integrated biological control in October-November, but where parathion was applied annually in sprays infestation was prevented. A light-trap was found to be useful as an early warning system for infestation. Five hymenopterous and one tachinid parasite species were reared from larvae collected in the field. In orchards under biological control, the application of a formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis in sprays about two weeks after the first increase in light-trap catches gave the most promising results. No further control measures were necessary in orchards that had been treated with parathion.