Value of clinical examination and selected laboratory methods in diagnosing pyelonephritis in cattle. I. Clinical picture, changes in urine and of urea and creatinine in serum, and the xanthoprotein test. II. Electrolytes in blood serum

Filar, J.

Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska. Sectio DD, Medicina Veterinaria 30: 65-95

1975


ISSN/ISBN: 0301-7737
Accession: 000570635

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Abstract
Blood samples (119) were taken from 65 sick and 54 healthy cows; 44 of the sick cows were examined PM. A urine concentration test was conducted as a guide to kidney efficiency by measuring the maximum specific gravity after 16 and 24 hours without water. The clinical picture was very variable. Small, purulent, greyish white inflammatory foci were visible on the renal surfaces, with considerable swelling of the ureter ann necrosis of the renal papillae and tubules (often filled with a colloidal substance) and general purulent infiltration of the renal tissue, with changes in urine yield and urine discolouration. PM examination revealed extensive involvement of the renal parenchyma in 37% of cases, although the general state of the kidneys was good, and clinical phenomena were disproportionate in relation to these changes. The most characteristic changes in urine during pyelonephritis were clouding, low specific gravity, high pH, slight or moderate intensity of proteinuria, an increased number of leucocytes in the urine sediment in the initial stage of the disease, and of erythrocytes in the later stage, especially in combination with necrosis of the renal papillae. The urine concentration test and an increased number of leukocytes in the sediment facilitated diagnosis of early pyelonephritis. Determination of the urea and creatinine levels of the blood serum and the xanthoprotein test were useful to assess the degree of incapacity of the kidneys during pyelonephritis in cattle, which do not show clinical symptoms of renal incapacity. The degree of necrosis of renal tissue was related to serum urea. Changes in serum electrolytes were analysed in relation to the degree of incapacity of the kidneys. The 65 sick cows were divided into 3 groups: (I) cows with pyelonephritis without symptoms of incapacity of the kidneys, and not in a serious state; 15 of these 21 cows were cured. (II) 23 cows showing moderate renal incapacity; the urea level of the serum was in all cases greater than the norm, but not exceeding 150 mg%. Only 5 cows of the group were cured. (III) 21 cows with a high degree of renal incapacity and urea levels from 153 to 900 mg%; all cows of this group were slaughtered or died and PM examination showed a moderate or severe degree of renal damage. Some cases had low electrolyte values and others had high values. Cu fell in proportion to the degree of renal incapacity; noticeable increase in P was observed only for group III. Marked hypermagnesaemia occurred in 75% of cases, causing dullness and drowsiness, explained by the rise in the Mg level of the serum of the sick cows due to decreased liberation of Mg by the kidneys. Potassium was low in 14 out of 65 cows, 10 of them in group II, generally in a good state of health with moderately increased urea and the creatinine levels. K was high in group III (up to 30 mg%). Determination of blood potassium was important for diagnosis. Pyelonephritis may also be termed potassium-loss nephritis.