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Effects of several factors upon the underground concealment behaviour of final instar larvae of the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon



Effects of several factors upon the underground concealment behaviour of final instar larvae of the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon



Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology 22(2): 102-107



The order of depth of larvae was vermiculite > silty clay loam > sand when the depth of the final instar larvae of the black cutworm in the daytime was determined under experimental conditions in 3 kinds of soil. Most larvae were found resting less than 4 cm deep at the head position and less than 7 cm deep at the tail-end position, even in vermiculite. Larvae were found somewhat deeper at 20.degree. C and 25.degree. C than at 15.degree. C. At 5.degree. C, a considerable number of larvae were found near the soil surface. The most suitable water content in vermiculite for the deepest underground concealment of larvae was from 50%-67%. Most larvae could not enter deep into dried vermiculite even when the material was very humid. The pupation site of larvae was much deeper than the normal resting site, though the dry soil was not suitable for deeper pupation. When 2 larvae were placed in a test container, they took their places separately under different pieces of food. When 3 larvae were placed, 45% of them escaped from the test container. The results clearly indicate that they possess some exclusive behaviors. When insecticides were topically applied to larvae, they could enter the soil but most larvae appeared to be dying on the surface of soil. The insecticidal effectiveness based on the number of dying larvae on the soil surface was isoxathion > methomyl > dichlorvos > diazinon > heptachlor, reflecting their effectiveness when topically applied. Under a regime of 16 h light and 8 h dark per day, fewer larvae appeared above the surface within 1 h after light off, but most larvae exposing their head or body above the soil surface for feeding hid themselves in the soil just after light on.

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Accession: 000648598

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DOI: 10.1303/jjaez.22.102


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