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Needle retention gauge

, : Needle retention gauge. Folia Forestalia, Institutum Forestale Fenniae (438): 10

A method for estimating the physiological condition of conifers by determining the force required to detach living needles from their shoots was developed in Finland in the late 1960s and has been used in various studies since then. The instruments used for the purpose are a spring balance, the 'Pesola gauge' and its modification, the 'Nisula gauge'.

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