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Ketamine and the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine in cats anesthetized with halothane and isoflurane


, : Ketamine and the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine in cats anesthetized with halothane and isoflurane. American Journal of Veterinary Research 47(10): 2122-2125

Epinephrine-induced arrhythmias were studied in 4 cats (group A), using a 4 .times. 4 Latin square design. Each cat was anesthetized 4 times, 1 week apart, with halothane (1.5% end expired), isoflurane (2.0% end expired), and halothane or isoflurane preceded by ketamine administered IM (8.8 mg/kg). Lead II of the ECG and femoral artery pressure were recorded. Epinephrine was infused in progressively doubled rates (initial rate = 0.125 .mu.g/kg/min) for a maximum of 2.5 minutes or until at least 4 ventricular premature depolarizations occurred within 15 s of each other. The arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine (ADE; .mu.g/kg) was calculated as the product of infusion rate and time to arrhythmia. The ADE (.hivin.X .+-. SD) during anesthesia with halothane alone and with ketamine-halothane anesthesia were 1.33 .+-. 0.65 and 1.37 .+-. 0.59 .mu.g/kg, respectively; during anesthesia with isoflurane alone and ketamine-isoflurane anesthesia, the ADE were 9.34 .+-. 1.29 and 16.16 .+-. 3.63 .mu.g/kg, respectively. The ADE was significantly greater (P < 0.05) during isoflurane anesthesia and ketamine-isoflurane anesthesia than during halothane anesthesia. The percentages of change in systolic blood pressure (.hivin.X .+-. SD) at the ADE during halothane, ketamine-halothane, and ketamine-isoflurane were 31 .+-. 34, 41 .+-. 17, 127 .+-. 27, and 148 .+-. 57, respectively. The percentages of change in blood pressure during isoflurane anesthesia and ketamine-isoflurane anesthesia were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than during halothane anesthesia. The percentages of change in heart rate (.hivin.X .+-. SD) at the ADE during halothane, ketamine-halothane, isoflurane, and ketamine-isoflurane were 20 .+-. 15, 16 .+-. 14, 14 .+-. 18, and 0 .+-. 27, respectively. Five additional cats (group B) were anesthetized on 2 occasions, 1 week apart, with halothane (1.5% end expired) and ketamine infusion (76 .mu.g/kg/min) or isoflurane (2.0% end expired) and ketamine infusion (76 .mu.g/kg/min). The ADE was determined after the cats had been anesthetized for 4 hours. The ADE (.hivin.X .+-. SD) during ketamine infusion-halothane anesthesia and ketamine infusion-isoflurane anesthesia were 0.57 .+-. 0.35 .mu.g/kg and 6.63 .+-. 4.28 .mu.g/kg, respectively. The percentages of change in systolic blood pressure at the ADE during ketamine in fusion-halothane anesthesia and ketamine infusion-isoflurane anesthesia were 35 .+-. 29 and 156 .+-. 19, respectively. The percentages of change in heart rate at the ADE during ketamine infusion-halothane anesthesia and ketamine infusion-isoflurane anesthesia were 22 .+-. 11 and 77 .+-. 78, respectively.

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Accession: 001398796

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