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Ketamine and the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine in cats anesthetized with halothane and isoflurane



Ketamine and the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine in cats anesthetized with halothane and isoflurane



American Journal of Veterinary Research 47(10): 2122-2125



Epinephrine-induced arrhythmias were studied in 4 cats (group A), using a 4 .times. 4 Latin square design. Each cat was anesthetized 4 times, 1 week apart, with halothane (1.5% end expired), isoflurane (2.0% end expired), and halothane or isoflurane preceded by ketamine administered IM (8.8 mg/kg). Lead II of the ECG and femoral artery pressure were recorded. Epinephrine was infused in progressively doubled rates (initial rate = 0.125 .mu.g/kg/min) for a maximum of 2.5 minutes or until at least 4 ventricular premature depolarizations occurred within 15 s of each other. The arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine (ADE; .mu.g/kg) was calculated as the product of infusion rate and time to arrhythmia. The ADE (.hivin.X .+-. SD) during anesthesia with halothane alone and with ketamine-halothane anesthesia were 1.33 .+-. 0.65 and 1.37 .+-. 0.59 .mu.g/kg, respectively; during anesthesia with isoflurane alone and ketamine-isoflurane anesthesia, the ADE were 9.34 .+-. 1.29 and 16.16 .+-. 3.63 .mu.g/kg, respectively. The ADE was significantly greater (P < 0.05) during isoflurane anesthesia and ketamine-isoflurane anesthesia than during halothane anesthesia. The percentages of change in systolic blood pressure (.hivin.X .+-. SD) at the ADE during halothane, ketamine-halothane, and ketamine-isoflurane were 31 .+-. 34, 41 .+-. 17, 127 .+-. 27, and 148 .+-. 57, respectively. The percentages of change in blood pressure during isoflurane anesthesia and ketamine-isoflurane anesthesia were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than during halothane anesthesia. The percentages of change in heart rate (.hivin.X .+-. SD) at the ADE during halothane, ketamine-halothane, isoflurane, and ketamine-isoflurane were 20 .+-. 15, 16 .+-. 14, 14 .+-. 18, and 0 .+-. 27, respectively. Five additional cats (group B) were anesthetized on 2 occasions, 1 week apart, with halothane (1.5% end expired) and ketamine infusion (76 .mu.g/kg/min) or isoflurane (2.0% end expired) and ketamine infusion (76 .mu.g/kg/min). The ADE was determined after the cats had been anesthetized for 4 hours. The ADE (.hivin.X .+-. SD) during ketamine infusion-halothane anesthesia and ketamine infusion-isoflurane anesthesia were 0.57 .+-. 0.35 .mu.g/kg and 6.63 .+-. 4.28 .mu.g/kg, respectively. The percentages of change in systolic blood pressure at the ADE during ketamine in fusion-halothane anesthesia and ketamine infusion-isoflurane anesthesia were 35 .+-. 29 and 156 .+-. 19, respectively. The percentages of change in heart rate at the ADE during ketamine infusion-halothane anesthesia and ketamine infusion-isoflurane anesthesia were 22 .+-. 11 and 77 .+-. 78, respectively.

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Accession: 001398796

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PMID: 3777632



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