Off-farm employment in marginal farm households: a hidden development of parts of Pakistan's rural poor

Klennert, K.

Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture 25(1): 37-48


Accession: 001420802

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Some of the main results are presented of a field study conducted in the Pakistan Punjab in 1978/79 on off-farm employment in marginal farm households. Despite the fact that off-farm employment can significantly improve a family's socioeconomic situation, only 40% of marginal farm households can take up such an activity, because of the size and structure of the household; generally only households with at least two adult male members can successfully achieve a combination of agricultural and non-agricultural activities. In such cases off-farm income raises the household budget directly, and indirectly by increasing the productivity of the marginal farm through investment. As a result the poverty of such households is reduced and the country's general development improved.