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Parasites of the California scale

, : Parasites of the California scale. Zashchita Rastenii (6): 26-27

Keys are provided for identifying the main parasites of the California scale (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus) on the basis of adult and pupal characters.

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Related references

Popova, A.I., 1976: More about parasites of the males of the California scale. Endo- and ectoparasites of Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comst.) have been observed on the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar region of the USSR since the 1930's, but have seemed to be of little importance. However, they became more numerous beg...

Popova, A.I., 1974: Parasites of the males of the California scale. On the Black Sea coast of the Krasnoda region of the Soviet Union, the numbers of the California scale [Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comst.)] are regulated by the predators Chilocorus renipustulatus (Scriba) and C. bipustulatus (L.) and the parasi...

Howard, L.O., 1894: The Hymenopterous parasites of the California red scale. Insect Life, VI 227-236

Campbell, T.G., 1943: Introduction of scale parasites from California. The Chinese races of Comperiella bifasciata on citrus red scale, Aonidiella aurantii, and Metaphycus helvolus on black scale, Saissetia oleae, have been established at the Canberra Laboratory and are being increased.

Flanders, S.E., 1957: Fig scale parasites introduced into California. The chalcidoids Aphytis mytilaspides and Physcus testaceous have been introduced from Europe into California for the control of Lepidosaphes ficus, but only Aphytis became established. This Aphytis appears to be a biological race since it immediat...

Debach, Paul, 1953: Purple scale parasites in Southern California. Control of purple scale (Lepidosaphes beckii) at present appears to be the key problem in attaining general biological control of pests of orange trees in coastal areas of s. California. Natural enemies, which have been in existence for years, app..., P.H.; Landi, J.; White, E.B., 1962: Parasites are controlling red scale in southern California citrus. Infestations of A. aurantii are at their lowest levels since this pest became widespread and seriously damaging in citrus orchards in southern California. Chemical treatments have been eliminated in many areas and, in others, reduced to applicatio...

Gressitt, J.L.nsley; Flanders, S.E.; Bartlett, B., 1954: Parasites of citricola scale in Japan, and their introduction into California. During the first half of 1951, a search was made in Japan for parasites of Coccus pseudomagnoliarum. The population of this scale is very low throughout Japan, and on Poncirus trifoliata. its preferred host plant, it appears to be under effective...

Flanders, Stanley E., 1951: Mass culture of California red scale and its golden chalcid parasites. Early investigations are outlined. The biology of the red scale (Aonidiella aurantii) and of the golden chalcid (Aphytis chrysomphall) are reviewed, as are critical factors affecting mass culture of host and parasite, housing and equipment, produc...

Flanders, S.E., 1943: Red Scale Parasites. Comparison of oriental Races of Comperiella bifasciata in California. Investigations in California have shown that there are two races of Comperiella Ufasciata, How., based on the ability of the eggs to hatch when deposited in the blood of the red scale; one, obtained from Japan in 1925, produces an average of two o...