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The milk salts: their secretion, concentrations and physical chemistry



The milk salts: their secretion, concentrations and physical chemistry



Developments in Dairy Chemistry 3: 143-181



After a review of current ideas on the secretion of milk salts via the Golgi vesicle route and the paracellular route, data are given on the effects of stage of lactation, mastitis, feeding and season on salt concentrations in cows' milk. 3 families of correlations of milk salt concentrations are then distinguished: the 1st, involving a negative correlation between lactose and K and a positive correlation between Na and Cl, results from the requirement that milk be isosmotic with blood; the 2nd involves diffusible Ca and Mg, which are positively correlated with citrate, and Ca2+, which is correlated positively with pH and negatively with HPO42-; the 3rd involves colloidal Ca, Mg, P and citrate, contained in fairly fixed proportions in micellar calcium phosphate. About two thirds of the Ca, one third of the Mg and half of the P in a typical milk are colloidal, whereas nearly all the Na, K and Cl are diffusible. Most of the Ca, Mg and citrate form CaCit- and MgCit- ions, while nearly all the P exists as HPO42- and H2PO4- ions. The chapter ends with a discussion of the nature of micellar calcium phosphate and the binding of Ca2+ and Mg2+ to casein, followed by a long section examining the effects of processing variables (additives, concentration and temp.) on the ion equilibria and colloidal state of the salts.

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