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A comparison of the persistence in a clay loam of single and repeated annual applications of seven granular insecticides used for corn rootworm control


A comparison of the persistence in a clay loam of single and repeated annual applications of seven granular insecticides used for corn rootworm control



Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B Pesticides Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes 23(1): 1-32



ISSN/ISBN: 0360-1234

PMID: 3372939

DOI: 10.1080/03601238809372584

In May 1983, granular formulations of carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, disulfoton, fonofos, isofenphos, phorate, and terbufos were applied in incorporated bands to duplicate 2 m2 field plots of clay loam. Insecticide concentrations were determined in the bands at 0,1,2,3,4,6,8,10,12,16, and 20 wk. Following spring cultivation, the insecticides were applied to the same plots in 1984 and 1985. In addition, carbofuran was applied to previously untreated plots in 1984 and all 7 materials were applied to previously untreated plots in 1985. Sampling and analysis were carried out as in 1983. Persistence was assessed on the basis of the disappearance rates measured for the 1st 8 wk of a calculated Effectiveness Potential (the ratio of the average residue in the upper 5 cm of the ban at 8, 10 and 12 wk and the published LC95 for western corn rootworm in clay loam soil). Soils treated with carbofuran and isofenphos in 1984 and all soils treated in 1985 were tested for anti-insecticide activity. Soil cores from some carbofuran, chlorpyrifos and terbufos treated plots were sectioned vertically to establish the distribution of the insecticides during 1985. In addition, granular and pure chemical forms of isofenphos and carbofuran were applied at 10 ppm to anti-isofenphos and anti-carbofuran active and control soils (from field plots) maintained at 10 and 20% moisture in the laboratory to assess the effect of formulation and moisture on persistence in active soils. Insecticide concentrations were determined at 0,1,3,7,10,14,21,28, and 35 days. The persistence of chlorpyrifos, terbufos and phorate was relatively constant over the 3 years and between plots receiving single and multiple treatments. Disulfoton and fonofos behavior was more variable and that of carbouran and isofenphos was extremely variable. Anti-insecticide activity against carbofuran and isofenphos was detectable 2 wk after an initial application and was still present the following spring. Anti-insecticide activity against fonofos, terbufos sulfoxide, phorate sulfone and disulfoton sulfone was also generated in this soil. Anti-insecticide activity against chlorpyrifos, disulfoton, terbufos and phorate was not present. Carbofuran, chlorpyrifos and terbufos (+ metabolites) present in the upper 5 cm of soil averaged 93, 94 and 94%, respectively, of the total core contents over 12 wk. Significant moisture dependent differences were observed between the behavior of granular carbofuran and granular isofenphos in anti-insecticide active soils. The variability of the field persistence of the materials tested is discussed in relation to annual weather pattrens and factors shown to affect the generation and effect of anti-insecticide activity.

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Accession: 001514117

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