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At what stages of the freezing-thawing process does extracellular ice cause cell injury?

At what stages of the freezing-thawing process does extracellular ice cause cell injury?

Fiziologiya Rastenii 35(2): 341-348

The electrical conductivity (EC) was studied in non-hardened cabbage leaves during gradual exposure to -2 to -12 degrees C and subsequent thawing. EC sharply increased during thawing and less markedly during freezing at injurious temperatures. It is suggested that cell injury which increased EC was induced by freezing and accelerated by thawing. The degree of tissue injury after thawing was shown by the difference in initial and final conductivity values.

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