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Humoral immune response of the bovine fetus to in utero vaccination with attenuated bovine coronavirus



Humoral immune response of the bovine fetus to in utero vaccination with attenuated bovine coronavirus



American Journal of Veterinary Research 49(2): 156-159



A fetal response to in utero vaccination with attenuated bovine coronavirus (9 to 49 days before parturition) was determined in 8 calves, 5 vaccinated and 3 controls. Calves were derived by hysterotomy before parturition and were maintained in a closed gnotobiotic environment. The IgA, IgM, and IgG values and coronavirus-neutralizing antibody titers were higher in the sera and intestinal loop fluid from vaccinated calves than in those from control calves. Sections of ileum and ileal lymph nodes from 1-day-old vaccinated calves, when stained with monospecific anti-bovine IgG, IgM, and IgA had numerous positively stained plasma cells. Positive fluorescence was not detected in comparable tissues from controls. When the 8 calves were given virulent coronavirus orally at 6 days of age, vaccinated calves did not become ill, whereas control calves had diarrhea in 19 to 22 hours. All calves were killed at 10 days of age. Control calves had lesions characteristic of coronavirus infection, and intestinal epithelial cells were positive by fluorescent antibody tests. In vaccinated calves, lesions of coronavirus infection were absent, and results of fluorescent antibody tests were negative. Although in utero vaccination with a coronavirus vaccine stimulated immunity in the newborn calf, the frequency of abortions (2 of 14 cows inoculated intra-amniotically) and premature births (4 of 14) precluded practical application.

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Accession: 001610119

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PMID: 2831759


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