Off-farm employment of farm households in Laguna, Philippines

Castillo, L.; Gascon, F.; Jayasuriya, S.K.

Off farm employment in the development of rural Asia Papers presented at a conference held in Chiang Mai Thailand 23 to 26 August 1983, 2: 133-146


Accession: 001646875

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The paper reviews some evidence of changing patterns of employment from Laguna which reflect the impact of new rice technology as well as the on-going wider economic changes. The study examined the patterns in off-farm employment of 91 households in Laguna for 1978 and 1981. The average proportion of non-farm income in total incomes of households was observed to have increased from 1978 to 1981. It was seen that, while a decline in total off-farm workdays has occurred, a corresponding increase in the proportion of salaried jobs to self-employed occupations has taken place. The increase in salaried jobs is attributed to the increasing role in off-farm employment of the children in the family who, with their higher educational qualifications, were able to gain entry into the fixed-wage labour market. It was also observed that even if the number of days in off-farm work decreased, income from such occupations increased even in real terms. This is again attributed to the shifting of the household's employment pattern from the irregular self-employed occupations to the more secure salaried types of jobs. The prevalence of a high degree of under-utilization of labour resources is indicated by the data and needs to be confirmed through studies better designed and focused on the employment issues. More attention is also needed to the characteristics and functioning of labour markets in the Philippines.