Screening loblolly pine seedling responses to SO2 and O3: analysis of families differing in resistance to fusiform rust disease
Winner, W.E.; Cotter, I.S.; Powers, H.R.; Skelly, J.M.
Environmental Pollution 47(3): 205-220
ISSN/ISBN: 0269-7491 PMID: 15092708 DOI: 10.1016/0269-7491(87)90211-9
Open pollinated families of loblolly pine differing in resistance to fusiform rust disease were screened in laboratory studies for responses to gaseous air pollutants. Twenty families were given acute exposures (2 fumigations for 4 h each) to SO(2) (0.4-1.0 ppm), O(3) (0.25 ppm), SO(2) (0.4-1.0 ppm) + O(3) (0.25 ppm) and control. Analyses of variance were performed to evaluate the treatment effects of these air pollutants on percent foliar injury, and to determine whether the families responded differentially to the air pollution treatments. Treatment effects were significant, with the combination treatment of SO(2) + O(3) producing a higher percentage of foliar injury than the controls; however, injury levels were very low and may not be of biological significance. Subsequently, twelve families were grown in two soil types for exposure to chronic levels of SO(2) (0.06 ppm), O(3) (0.07 ppm), SO(2) (0.06 ppm) + O(3) (0.07 ppm) and control. The families were then ranked for decreased primary shoot growth, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, total plant dry weight and root/shoot ratio after exposure to air pollution treatments. Air pollution treatments as a main effect were significant for only one of five growth parameters measured, that of primary shoot growth. The main effect of family, and the interaction of family and air pollution treatments, were significant for most growth parameters measured. In general, O(3) alone and in combination with SO(2) reduced growth more than SO(2) alone. Fumigation with O(3) reduced growth of two families in comparison with control groups, whereas SO(2) alone produced decreased growth in one family and stimulated growth in three families. Treatment with O(3) alone produced higher root/shoot ratios than fumigation with charcoal-filtered air in two families. Overall, families which were fast growers under control conditions maintained their ranking after exposure to air pollution. Families producing less growth in charcoal-filtered air also produced less growth under various air pollution regimes. Results indicated that these families exhibited a high degree of resistance to air pollution injury. Growth responses of seedlings may not reflect family differences in long-term productivity. No relationship was apparent between fusiform rust resistance and growth reductions due to air pollutants.