+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Tolazoline as an antagonist in free-living lions immobilised with a ketamine-xylazine combination



Tolazoline as an antagonist in free-living lions immobilised with a ketamine-xylazine combination



Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 57(4): 221-224



A combination of ketamine at 8.0 mg/kg and xylazine at 3.2 mg/kg was found effective in immobilising lions (Panthera leo) for 4 hours. Ataxia and immobilisation were rapidly induced, with stable respiratory rate, heart rate and body temperature recorded. Tolazoline effectively antagonised xylazine via intravenous or intramuscular injection, resulting in a return to mobility within approximately 20 and 60 minutes, respectively. Tolazoline also elevated the respiratory rate. No mortalities occurred during 97 immobilisations of 76 lions.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 001719959

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 3572957


Related references

Use of tolazoline as an antagonist to xylazine-ketamine-induced immobilization in African elephants. American Journal of Veterinary Research 47(4): 781-783, 1986

Immobilization of free-ranging African lions (Panthera leo) with a combination of xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 21(4): 401-404, 1985

A comparison of two intramuscular doses of xylazine-ketamine combination and tolazoline reversal in llamas. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 30(2): 114-115, 2003

A comparison of two intramuscular doses of xylazine-ketamine combination and tolazoline reversal in llamas. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 31(2): 90-96, 2004

Ketamine xylazine combination for the immobilisation of Galapagos sea lions and fur seals. Veterinary Record 112(12): 279-280, 1983

Electrocardiographic and Blood Pressure Measurements in Captive African Lions (Panthera leo) Immobilized with Xylazine-Ketamine Combination. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences 32(1): 85-90, 2017

Xylazine antagonism by tolazoline in the dog. 1. Modification by tolazoline of the duration of anesthesia and secondary action of xylazine on the respiratory and metabolic functions. Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 101(8): 266-270, 1988

Xylazine antagonism by tolazoline in the dog. 2. Cardiac and circulatory effects of xylazine anesthesia and its modification by tolazoline. Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 101(8): 271-277, 1988

Reversal by tolazoline hydrochloride of xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride immobilizations in free-ranging desert mule deer. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 25(3): 347-352, 1989

Effects of ketamine, xylazine, and a combination of ketamine and xylazine in Pekin ducks. American Journal of Veterinary Research 50(2): 245-249, 1989

Spotted hyenas immobilized with ketamine/xylazine and antagonized with tolazoline. African Journal of Ecology 29(2): 168-169, 1991

Pharmacokinetics of xylazine, 2,6-dimethylaniline, and tolazoline in tissues from yearling cattle and milk from mature dairy cows after sedation with xylazine hydrochloride and reversal with tolazoline hydrochloride. Veterinary Therapeutics 4(2): 128-134, 2003

Effect of tolazoline on xylazine-ketamine-induced anesthesia in turkey vultures. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 189(9): 1011-1012, 1986

Tolazoline as an antagonist of xylazine in cattle. Nihon Juigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science 48(4): 859-862, 1986

Tolazoline antagonist to xylazine in camels. Erkrankungen der Zootiere Verhandlungsbericht des 31 Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo und Wildtiere, Dortmund 1989: 163-166, 1989