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Types of parasitism in plant parasitic nematodes; the evolution of the superfamilies Tylenchoidea and Hoplolaimoidea (Tylenchida)

Ryss, A.Yu

Parazitologiceskij​ ​Sbornik 34: 169-191

1987


ISSN/ISBN: 0370-1794
Accession: 001723947

The evolution of parasitism in Tylenchoidea and Hoplolaimoidea is characterized by increasing specialization occurring independently in different phyletic lines and by an unbalanced evolution of topical and trophic links with their plant-hosts. Based on the evolution of host-parasite relationships, a new classification of types of parasitism is proposed as follows: ectotrophic-ectotopical; temporary endotrophic-ectotopical; temporary endotrophic-endotopical; permanent endotrophic-ectotopical; permanent endotrophic-endotopical. Evolution occurred via a series of modifications such as adaptation of the mouth organs to specialized feeding, the selection of one larval stage to be the disseminating (= infective) stage, the loss of a worm-like body in mature females, the hypertrophy of female gonads and adaptations designed to protect the female body. The Hoplolaimoidea are considered to have evolved from ancestral Tylenchoidea, close to the subfamilies Tylenchorhynchinae and Merliniinae (Dolichodoridae) and their origin is linked to the appearance of obligatory endoparasitic feeding. Meloidogynidae and Pratylenchidae are considered to belong to the same phyletic line and linked to the occurrence of temporary endotrophic-endotopical parasitism.

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