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Heavy-metal ecology of terrestrial plants, microorganisms and invertebrates. A review



Heavy-metal ecology of terrestrial plants, microorganisms and invertebrates. A review



Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 47(3-4): 189-215



Ecological and physiological effects of heavy metals on terrestrial organisms are reviewed, considering evidence from both laboratory and field studies. Problems concerning how to define heavy-metal exposure and to assess the sensitivity of field biota to heavy metals are discussed. Mechanisms of heavy-metal tolerance are considered including avoidance, exclusion, immobilization and excretion, also biochemical mechanisms including enzymatic change.

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