Malate Dehydrogenases in Guard Cells of Pisum sativum

Scheibe, R.; Reckmann, U.; Hedrich, R.; Raschke, K.

Plant Physiology 93(4): 1358-1364


ISSN/ISBN: 0032-0889
PMID: 16667625
DOI: 10.1104/pp.93.4.1358
Accession: 001880029

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Guard cell protoplasts of Pisum sativum show considerable NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity in darkness which can be enhanced severalfold by illumination or treatment with dithiothreitol (DTT). The question arose whether guard cells possess and NADP-MDH different from that present in the chloroplasts of the mesophyll (which is inactivie in darkness or in the absence of DTT). MDH activities were determined in extracts of isolated protoplasts from mesophyll and epidermis, and in mechanically prepared epidermal pieces (with guard cells as the only living cells and no interference from proteases originating from the cell wall digesting enzymes). Guard cells possessed NAD-dependent MDHs of high activity and incomplete exclusion of NADP as a coenzyme. This NADP-dependent activity of the NAD-MDH(s) could not be stimulated by DTT or, inferentially, by light. The DTT- (and light-) dependent NADP-MDH represented 0.05% of the total protein of the guard cells and had a specific activity of 0.1 unit per milligram protein; both values are in the same range as the corresponding ones of the mesophyll cells. Agreement was also found in the extent of light activation, in subunit molecular weight, immunological cross-reactions, and in the behavior on an ion exchange column. The activity of the chloroplastic NADP-MDH in guard cells barely suffices to meet the malate requirement for stomatal opening in the light. It is therefore likely that NAD-MDHs residing in other compartments of the guard cells supplement the activity of the chloroplastic NADP-MDH particularly during stomatal opening in darkness.