Parasitism of house fly (Musca domestica) pupae by four species of Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera) : effects of host--parasitoid densities and host distribution
Mann, J.A.; Stinner, R.E.; Axtell, R.C.
Medical and Veterinary Entomology 4(3): 235-243
ISSN/ISBN: 0269-283X PMID: 2132987 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2915.1990.tb00433.x
Parasitoid-induced mortality of house fly, Musca domestica L., pupae and parasitoid progeny emergence by four species of pteromalid parasitoids, Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders, M.zaraptor Kogan & Legner, Spalangia cameroni Perkins and S.endius Walker, were determined for a 24 h exposure period using parasitoid: host ratios ranging from 1:2 to 1:50. When the number of parasitoids was held constant (n = 5) and the numbers of hosts varied, and when the number of hosts was held constant (n = 100) and the number of parasitoids varied, both the number of pupae killed per parasitoid and the number of parasitoid progeny per parasitoid increased with increasing parasitoid:host ratios to reach an upper limit asymptotically. Maximum values were, respectively: M.raptor (14.7, 11.1), M.zaraptor (12.3, 9.3), S.cameroni (16.9, 5.5), S.endius (14.8, 9.7) with no consistent effects attributed to parasitoid interference. For M.raptor and S.cameroni at parasitoid:host ratios of 1:10, the pupal mortality and progeny emergence were determined for a 24 h exposure period when hosts were distributed in poultry manure at four levels of aggregation ranging from clumped to uniform. Pupal mortality was least in clumped distributions, while parasitoid progeny emergence was not significantly different.