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Soybean response to phosphorus and potassium fertilizers as affected by soil drying

Soybean response to phosphorus and potassium fertilizers as affected by soil drying

Soil Science Society of America Journal 53(5): 1448-1454

Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., response to P and K fertilizers can vary with the amount of rainfall received during a growing season, but it is often difficult to determine whether growth is limited by unavailability of nutrients and/or water. A 2-yr study was conducted in a rhizotron at Ames, IA, [Iowa, USA] to determine whether drying of the fertilized, surface soil layer reduces plant growth and utilization of P and K fertilizers when subirrigation replenishes water below the fertilized surface layer. Low, medium, and high fertility levels were established on soil obtained from the upper 0.15 m of a Sparta loamy, fine sand (sandy, mixed, mesic Entic Hapludoll). Two surface-drying treatments, on beginning during late following (dR2) and the other after the start of seed fill (dR5), and a control were imposed. Shoot tissue concentrations and dry weights at the full-seed stage (R6) and mature seed yield were measured. Surface drying reduced total shoot accumulation of P and K. Leaf and pod P concentrations were lower for the dR5 treatment than for the dR2 treatment. Shoot K concentrations of the dR2 treatment increased less than those of the other treatments as soil K levels increased. Shoot dry weights a R6 and mature seed yield were reduced at the low fertility level. Surface-drying treatments reduced total shoot dry weight (42.8 and 40.9 g plant-1) compared with the control (49.5 g plant-1) in both years, but yield was reduced only in 1984. This study shows that drying of the fertilized soil layer reduced shoot growth and utilization of applied P and K fertilizers even though water was available at greater depths.

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Accession: 001950300

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DOI: 10.2136/sssaj1989.03615995005300050024x

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