+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Toxicity of pesticides used on walnuts to a wild and azinphosmethyl-resistant strain of Trioxys pallidus (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae)

Toxicity of pesticides used on walnuts to a wild and azinphosmethyl-resistant strain of Trioxys pallidus (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae)

Journal of Economic Entomology 82(6): 1585-1592

Effects of azinphosmethyl, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, methidathion, or phosalone on a wild and a laboratory-selected strain of Trioxys pallidus Haliday were tested. A clip cage was used to confine insects on walnut foliage treated in the field. Mortality of adults was assessed after 4, 8, 18, 24, 48, and 72 h at 27 +/- 1.5 degrees C. Residues ranged from 1 to 35-d-old. One-day-old residues of chlorpyrifos were the most toxic to the wild colony; 1-d-old residues of azinphosmethyl, methidathion, phosalone, and endosulfan were progressively less toxic. Azinphosmethyl residues remained more toxic to both colonies for the longest time of any of the pesticides tested. Methidathion residues were toxic to the wild colony after 28 d (survival at 72 h, 56%), but survival of the Selected strain on 14-d-old residues was 94% even after 72 h of exposure. Residues of phosalone and endosulfan exhibited low toxicity (survival greater than 86%) to both strains after 14 d. The azinphosmethyl-selected strain of T. pallidus survived all pesticide residues significantly better than the wild strain (except the 14-d-old endosulfan residues, on which both survived equally well), indicating that cross-resistances developed through artifical selection with azinphosmethyl. Implications of the new azinphosmethyl-resistant strain of T. pallidus for walnut pest management and orchard management are discussed.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 001990269

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

DOI: 10.1093/jee/82.6.1585

Related references

Release, dispersal, and recovery of a laboratory-selected strain of the walnut aphid parasite Trioxys pallidus (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) resistant to azinphosmethyl. Journal of Economic Entomology 83(1): 89-96, 1990

Description of a new species of the genus Trioxys Haliday (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) and new record of Trioxys (Trioxys) pallidus (Hal.) from Kashmir (India). Journal of Entomological Research (New Delhi): 62: 146-149, 1982

Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers to monitor laboratory-selected, pesticide-resistant Trioxys pallidus (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) after release into three California walnut orchards. Environmental Entomology 24(3): 487-496, 1995

Description of a new species of the genus trioxys hymenoptera aphidiidae and new record of trioxys pallidus new record from kashmir india. Journal of Entomological Research (New Delhi) 6(2): 146-149, 1982

Mode of inheritance of azinphosmethyl resistance in a laboratory selected strain of trioxys pallidus. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 63(3): 229-236, 1992

Hybridization and host suitability of two biotypes of trioxys pallidus hymenoptera aphidiidae. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 81(1): 6-9, 1988

Introduction and establishment of trioxys pallidus hymenoptera aphidiidae in oregon usa for control of filbert aphid myzocallis coryli homoptera aphididae. Entomophaga 34(2): 153-164, 1989

Discriminating between biotypes of the walnut aphid parasite, Trioxys pallidus (Hymenoptera Aphidiidae), using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. 1994

The field ecology of the walnut aphid, Chromaphis juglandicola (Homoptera: Aphididae) and its introduced parasite, Trioxys pallidus (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae): a qualitative and quantitative assessment of population regulation. Dissertation Abstracts International B Sciences and Engineering, 414: 1234, 1980

Residual toxicity of five citrus pesticides to a carbaryl-resistant and a wild strain of the California red scale parasite Aphytis melinus DeBach (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 86(2): 195-204, 1993

A review of species of the subgenus Trioxys s. str., genus Trioxys Haliday (Hymenoptera, Aphidiidae) of Russia and adjacent countries. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 84(3): 579-609, 2005

Genetic improvement of a parasitoid: response of Trioxys pallidus to laboratory selection with azinphosmethyl. Biocontrol Science and Technology 1(1): 31-41, 1991

Evidence for the separation of the sibling species Trioxys utilis and Trioxys pallidus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae). Ann. ent. Soc. Amer, College Park, Md., 55: 5, 566-568, 1962

Toxicity of benzoylphenylureas and thuringiensin to trioxys pallidus hymenoptera braconidae and the walnut aphid chromaphis juglandicola homoptera aphididae. Journal of Economic Entomology 78(5): 1133-1137, 1985

Introduction and establishment of Trioxys pallidus (Hym.: Aphidiidae) in Oregon, U.S.A. for control of filbert aphid Myzocallis coryli (Hom.: Aphididae). Entomophaga 342: 153-163, 1989