+ Translate

Carbohydrate sources and sinks in woody plants

, : Carbohydrate sources and sinks in woody plants. Botanical Review. 58(2): 107-222

Each perennial woody plant is a highly integrated system of competing carbohydrate sinks (utilization sites). Internal competition for carbohydrates is shown by changes in rates of carbohydrate movement from sources to sinks and reversals in direction of carbohydrate transport as the relative sink strengths of various organs change. Most carbohydrates are produced in foliage leaves but some are synthesized in cotyledons, hypocotyls, buds, twigs, stems, flowers, fruits, and strobili. Although the bulk of the carbohydrate pool moves to sinks through the phloem, some carbohydrates are obtained by sinks from the xylem sap. Sugars are actively accumulated in the phloem and move passively to sinks along a concentration gradient. The dry weight of a mature woody plant represents only a small proportion of the photosynthate it produced. This discrepancy results not only from consumption of plant tissues by herbivores and shedding of plant parts, but also from depletion of carbohydrates by respiration, leaching, exudation, secretion, translocation to other plants through root grafts and mycorrhizae and losses to parasites. Large spatial and temporal variations occur in the use of reserve- and currently produced carbohydrates in metabolism and growth of shoots, stems, roots, and reproductive structures. A portion of the carbohydrate pool is diverted for production of chemicals involved in defense against fungi, herbivores, and competing plants. Woody plants accumulate carbohydrates during periods of excess production and deplete carbohydrates when the rate of utilization exceeds the rate of production. Stored carbohydrates play an important role in metabolism, growth, defense, cold hardiness, and postponement or prevention of plant mortality.

Accession: 002042929

DOI: 10.1007/bf02858600

Download PDF Full Text: Carbohydrate sources and sinks in woody plants

Submit PDF Full Text

No spam - Every submission is manually reviewed

Due to poor quality, we do not accept files from Researchgate

Submitted PDF Full Texts will always be free for everyone
(We only charge for PDFs that we need to acquire)

Select a PDF file:

Related references

Dong, J.; Kaufmann, R.K.; Myneni, R.B.; Tucker, C.J.; Kauppi, P.E.; Liski, J.; Buermann, W.; Alexeyev, V.; Hughes, M.K., 2003: Remote sensing estimates of boreal and temperate forest woody biomass: Carbon pools, sources, and sinks. The relation between satellite measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), cumulated over the growing season, and inventory estimates of forest woody biomass carbon is estimated statistically with data from 167 provinces and...

Anonymous, 1985: Regulation of sources and sinks in crop plants. This monograph is based on a meeting held at York University on 25-26 Sept. 1984 which reviewed recent progress in understanding source/sink interactions, considered aspects appropriate to chemical manipulation and sought through discussion to def...

Peat, W.E.Reviewer, 1986: Regulation of sources and sinks in crop plants (book review). Journal of Experimental Botany 37: 5

Crawford T.W.Jr; Rendig V.V.; Broadbent F.E., 1980: Sources fluxes and sinks of nitrogen during the reproductive growth phase of maize zea mays plants. Plant Physiology (Rockville) 65(6 SUPPL): 60

Seco, R.; Penuelas, J.; Filella, I., 2007: Short-chain oxygenated VOCs: Emission and uptake by plants and atmospheric sources, sinks, and concentrations. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have multiple atmospheric implications and play many roles in plant physiology and ecology. Among these VOCs, growing interest is being devoted to a group of short-chain oxygenated VOCs (oxVOCs). Tec...

Watkinson, A.R.; Sutherland, W.J., 1995: Sources, sinks and pseudo-sinks. 1. It has been suggested that the habitats which a species occupies can be divided into sources and sinks, depending on whether or not local reproduction is sufficient to balance mortality. Source populations are those where reproduction exceeds m...

Vione, D.; Barra, S.; D.G.nnaro, G.; D.R.enzo, M.; Gilardoni, S.; Perrone, M.Grazia.; Pozzoli, L., 2004: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere: monitoring, sources, sinks and fate. II: Sinks and fate. This paper reviews the transformation processes that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) undergo in the atmosphere. These processes can take place both in the gas phase and in the particulate/aerosol one. Among the gas-phase processes, the mos...

Meyer, M.M.; Jr.; Splittstoesser, W.E., 1969: Carbohydrate and nitrogen changes during spring growth of woody plants. The spring flush of growth and the use of reserve materials were studied at varying periods after bud break. Lilac (Syringa spp.) plants were separated into buds, stems and roots and analysed for changes in total available carbohydrates, sugars, h...

Sommer, H.E., 1982: Sources and collections of woody forest plants. A list of publications relating to: suppliers of forest seeds or seedlings; and collections of woody plants in arboreta and botanical gardens in North America.

Brown, W.L., 1988: Calcium and magnesium sources for woody plants. Nursery stock of the blueberry [Vaccinium ashei] cv. Tifblue, juniper [Juniperus horizontalis] cv. Blue Rug, azalea cv. Carror and dwarf yaupon [Ilex vomitoria] was planted in May 1985 in 3-quart containers, in a 6:1 mixture of pine bark (pH 6.0)...