Comparison between the flora and vegetation of the subalpine-alpine zone in the Japanese Alps and the European Alps
Holzner, W.; Huebl, E.
Veroffentlichungen des Geobotanischen Institutes der ETH, Stiftung Rubel, Zurich 98: 299-329
A comparative account of the subalpine forests, the timberline, the dwarf pine community, and the various treeless communities at higher altitudes, in the subalpine/alpine zone in Japan and in Europe. In Japan, the subalpine forest consists of conifers/Betula (in Europe of conifers, with Fagus in marginal oceanic areas) and the timberline is unaffected by man, whereas in Europe it has been depressed by pastoralism.