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Coronavirus infection in the laboratory rat: immunization trials using attenuated virus replicated in L-2 cells



Coronavirus infection in the laboratory rat: immunization trials using attenuated virus replicated in L-2 cells



Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 55(1): 60-66



Sixty-nine specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats approximately eight weeks of age were used to evaluate the efficacy of an attentuated strain of sialodacryoadenitis (SDA) virus in providing protection against infection on subsequent challenge with virulent SDA virus. Fifty-four animals were inoculated intranasally with approximately 10-1.5 median cell culture infectious doses of the 25th passage of SDA virus in L-2 cells. Randomly-selected vaccinated animals were killed in order to evaluate the safety and efficacy of attenuated virus by histopathological examination of the salivary glands, lacrimal glands, and lower respiratory tract, and titration of sera for antibody to SDA virus. At three months and six months post-vaccination (pv), animals were selected at random and challenged with virulent SDA virus. Seronegative, age-matched animals were also challenged, and served as controls. In animals examined at six to ten days pv, lesions were absent in submandibular and parotid salivary glands and lacrimal glands, but transient lesions were present in major airways of the lower respiratory tract. In a comparison of the incidence and extent of lesions, and antibody titers in challenged vaccinates and seronegative controls, lesions were minimal or absent in vaccinates compared to challenged naive rats, particularly in animals inoculated at three months pv. In addition, antibody titers in challenged vaccinates were much higher than were postinoculation titers in inoculated controls. In a comparison of lesions in salivary and lacrimal glands in vaccinated and control animals challenged at six months pv, there was a significant reduction in the number of animals without lesions in the vaccinated group (p = < 0.0001). Based on the incidence of lesions in target tissues and the marked antibody response in vaccinates on challenge with virulent SDA virus, it was concluded that prior inoculation with the attenuated strain of SDA virus provided a significant level of protection for up to six months postvaccination.

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Accession: 002060695

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PMID: 1653100


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