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Karyological analysis and genome size in Milium (Gramineae) with special reference to polyploidy and chromosomal evolution


Genome 34(6): 868-878
Karyological analysis and genome size in Milium (Gramineae) with special reference to polyploidy and chromosomal evolution
Karyotypes, nuclear DNA amounts, and meiotic behaviour are presented for Milium effusum L. (2n = 28), Milium montianum Parl. (2n = 22), and two cytotypes of Milium vernale Bieb. (2n = 8, 10). The bimodal karyotype of M. montianum (8 large and 14 small chromosomes) is described for the first time. Evidence from C-banding and geographical distribution suggests an ancient interracial allopolyploid origin for M. effusum (2n = 28). Although M. montianum is undoubtedly allopolyploid, its parentage is unconfirmed. A strong resemblance between the M. vernale (2n = 8) karyotype and the eight large chromosomes in M. montianum suggests a common ancestry. It is possible that a diploid form of M. effusum contributed the remaining 14 chromosomes. A selective loss of DNA sequences from the smaller chromosomes during the subsequent reorganization of the allopolyploid genome may have enhanced the bimodality of the karyotype. Geographical distribution and a change in the breeding system support the direction of the change X = 5 to X = 4 in M. vernale. Allopolyploidy appears to have played a central role in the chromosome evolution and speciation of Milium.


Accession: 002147348

DOI: 10.1139/g91-134



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