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Recent developments in and intercomparisons of acute and chronic bioassays and bioindicators

Recent developments in and intercomparisons of acute and chronic bioassays and bioindicators

Munawar, M , Et Al (Ed ) Developments in Hydrobiology, Vol 54 Environmental Bioassay Techniques And Their Application; 1st International Conference, Lancaster, England, Uk, July 11-14, 1988 Xiv+680p Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, Netherlands; Boston, Massachusetts, Usa Illus Maps 21-60

The ultimate goal of toxicity testing is to monitor or predict the effects of single compounds, elements or mixtures on the long-term health of individual organisms, populations, communities and ecosystems. Unfortunately, one does not always have all of the information required to determine the long-term or ‘chronic’ effects of toxicants on the survival, growth or reproduction of aquatic organisms. For this reason, the chronic effects of toxicants are often inferred or estimated from observations made during short-term or or ‘acute’ field or laboratory studies, which may be conducted at greater concentrations of toxicant. The observations made in the short-term studies are then related to the chronic effects by some statistical relationship. There are basically two approaches: 1) The long-term effects on a parameter, such as survival (lethality.) are predicted from observations on the same parameter, during short-term exposures; 2) Alternatively, the response of one parameter to long-term exposures of a toxicant can be predicted from the short-term responses of a different parameter. In this report we present several different examples of both types of methods for estimating chronic responses from information on more short-term responses and discuss the rationale, advantages and disadvantages of each. We also report on two biochemical indicators; energetic substrates and RNA/DNA ratio. These indicators both act as sensitive, integrative measures of sublethal effects of contaminants during both acute and chronic exposures.

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Accession: 002203038

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DOI: 10.1007/bf00027770

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