+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Sequence signals in eukaryotic upstream regions

Sequence signals in eukaryotic upstream regions

Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 25(3): 185-224

Two DNA sequence elements are known to recur frequently upstream of eukaryotic polymerase II-transcribed genes. The TATAAA, at position -40, specifies the transcription initiation site. The GGCCAATCT is less frequent around -80. Sequence analysis of upstream regions reveals that the underlined yeast UAS2 consensus sequence, TGATTGGT, is also very frequent at -80 in higher polymerase II-transcribed animal sequences. The underlined CCAAT box and yeast UAS sequences are complementary. Structural analysis suggests some symmetry in their DNA structures. Upstream of the TATAAT-rich region there is an abundance of GC sequences. Analysis of nucleotide tracts indicates that these are preferentially flanked by their complementary nucleotides with a pyrimidine-purine junction, i.e., TTAN, CCGn, CnGG, TnAA. Here, I discuss DNA structural consideration in upstream regions along with protein readout of the major and minor groove information content. These sequence-structure aspects are put in the general context of protein (factors)-DNA (elements) recognition and regulation.

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 002219094

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 2196161

DOI: 10.3109/10409239009090609

Related references

Rb and prohibitin target distinct regions of E2F1 for repression and respond to different upstream signals. Molecular and Cellular Biology 19(11): 7447-7460, 1999

Hamming-Clustering methods for signals prediction in 5' and 3' regions of eukaryotic genes. Computer Applications in the Biosciences 12(5): 399-404, 1996

Two distant upstream regions containing cis-acting signals regulating splicing facilitate 3'-end processing of avian sarcoma virus RNA. Journal of Virology 66(7): 4242-4251, 1992

Prediction of the subcellular localization of eukaryotic proteins using sequence signals and composition. Proteomics 4(6): 1591-1596, 2004

A common sequence of calcium and pH signals in the mitogenic stimulation of eukaryotic cells. Nature 313(6002): 481-484, 1985

Sequence of the 5 upstream regions of alc a and ald a structural genes in aspergillus nidulans. 1985

Identification of an upstream activating sequence and an upstream repressible sequence of the pyruvate kinase gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molecular and Cellular Biology 9(2): 442-451, 1989

Eukaryotic tRNA gene transcription is controlled by signals within and outside the mature coding sequence. Princess Takamatsu Symposia 12: 63-72, 1982

Eukaryotic transfer rna gene transcription is controlled by signals within and outside the mature coding sequence. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Supplement (6): 270, 1982

Sequence diversity present within the 5' upstream regions of BoLA class I genes. Immunogenetics 46(4): 352-354, 1997

Sequence change in putative enhancer regions upstream of the apolipoprotein gene. Biochemical Society Transactions 27(3): A122, 1999

Upstream induction sequence the cis acting element required for response to the allantoin pathway inducer and enhancement of operation of the nitrogen regulated upstream activation sequence in saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Bacteriology 173(22): 7186-7195, 1991