Availability, movement and (accelerated) transformation of soil-applied nematicides

Smelt, J.H.; Leistra, M.

Nematology from molecule to ecosystem Proceedings Second International Nematology Congress, 11-17 August 1990, Veldhoven, the Netherlands: 266-280


Accession: 002307360

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The efficacy of soil-applied nematicides, such as aldicarb, ethoprophos, fenamiphos and carbofuran, is dependent on the exposure of the nematodes in soil solution. The bio-availability and the movement of these nematicides with soil water flow are highly affected by the adsorption on soil organic matter. The coefficients for adsorptions on soil organic matter (K0m) were calculated from literature data. The adsorption of the nematicides by soils differs considerably, and this knowledge can be used for selecting the optimal application method. A substantial persistence of a nematicide is desired for long-term crop protection. Results from incubation studies showed a wide range of transformation rates for each nematicide in different soils, also in soils with similar properties. Therefore, predictions on persistence and on related efficacy in a particular soil cannot be made. This requires regular checks on persistence via incubation studies. Repeated application of the same nematicide may induce accelerated transformation in soil by adaptation of microorganisms. This phenomenon has been reported to occur for all nematicides, and it can reduce the efficacy. The accelerated transformation can persist for several years in soil and it can be induced also by applying pesticides with related chemical structure.