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Balamuthia mandrillaris, n. g., n. sp., agent of amebic meningoencephalitis in humans and other animals


, : Balamuthia mandrillaris, n. g., n. sp., agent of amebic meningoencephalitis in humans and other animals. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. July-August; 404: 504-514

We recently reported the isolation of a leptomyxid ameba from the brain of a mandrill baboon that died of meningoencephalitis. Based on light and electron microscopic studies, animal pathogenicity tests, and immunofluorescence patterns, we conclude that our isolate differs fundamentally from the other two amebas (Leptomyxa and Gephyramoeba) included in the Order Leptomyxida. We therefore created a new genus, Balamuthia, to accommodate our isolate and described it as Balamuthia mandrillaris to reflect the origin of the type species. Briefly, B. mandrillaris is a pathogenic ameba that causes amebic encephalitis in humans and animals. It has trophic and cyst stages in its life cycle, and is uninucleate with a large vesicular nucleus and a central nucleolus. Mature cysts have a tripartite wall consisting of an outer loose ectocyst, an inner endocyst and a middle mesocyst. Unlike Acanthamoeba and Naegleria, the other two amebas that cause amebic encephalitis in humans, Balamuthia will not grow on agar plates seeded with enteric bacteria. However, Balamuthia grows on a variety of mammalian cell cultures and kills mice following intranasal or intraperitoneal inoculation. Based on immunofluorescence testing, 35 cases of amebic encephalitis in humans and three in other animals have been identified worldwide as being caused by Balamuthia.

Accession: 002308065

PMID: 8330028

DOI: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.1993.tb04943.x

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Related references

Visvesvara, G.S.; Schuster, F.L.; Martinez, A.J., 1993: Balamuthia mandrillaris, N. G., N. Sp., agent of amebic meningoencephalitis in humans and other animals. We recently reported the isolation of a leptomyxid ameba from the brain of a mandrill baboon that died of meningoencephalitis. Based on light and electron microscopic studies, animal pathogenicity tests, and immunofluorescence patterns, we conclud...

Visvesvara, G.S.; Schuster, F.L.; Martinez, A.J.lio, 1993: Balamuthia mandrillaris, new genus new species agent of amebic meningoencephalitis in humans and other animals. We recently reported the isolation of a leptomyxid ameba from the brain of a mandrill baboon that died of meningoencephalitis. Based on light and electron microscopic studies, animal pathogenicity tests, and immunofluorescence patterns, we conclud...

Schuster, F.L.; Visvesvara, G.S., 1996: Axenic growth and drug sensitivity studies of Balamuthia mandrillaris, an agent of amebic meningoencephalitis in humans and other animals. A cell-free growth medium for the opportunistic pathogenic ameba Balamuthia mandrillaris is presented. This represents an advance over the use of monkey kidney cells for growth of the amebas and can be helpful in isolation of these amebas from bra...

Rowen, J.L.; Doerr, C.A.; Vogel, H.; Baker, C.J., 1995: Balamuthia mandrillaris: a newly recognized agent for amebic meningoencephalitis. Two cases (both male, aged 5 and 15 years) of fatal infections of amoebic meningoencephalitis caused by the normally free living amoeba Balamuthia mandrillaris are reported from Texas, USA. The clinical presentation in these and other reported pae...

Schuster, F.L.; Visvesvara, G.S., 1996: Axenic growth and drug sensitivity studies of Balamuthia mandrillaris, an agent of amoebic meningoencephalitis in humans and other animals. A cell-free growth medium for the opportunistic pathogenic ameba Balamuthia mandrillaris is presented. This represents an advance over the use of monkey kidney cells for growth of the amebas and can be helpful in isolation of these amebas from bra...

Griesemer, D.A.; Barton, L.L.; Reese, C.M.; Johnson, P.C.; Gabrielsen, J.A.B.; Talwar, D.; Visvesvara, G.S., 1994: Amebic meningoencephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris. Free-living amebae etiologically associated with central nervous system (CNS) infection in children have included Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, and recently, leptomyxid ameba. Two previously healthy children are reported with CNS infection caused by le...

Griesemer, D.A.; Barton, L.L.; Reese, C.M.; Johnson, P.C.; Gabrielsen, J.A.; Talwar, D.; Visvesvara, G.S., 1994: Amebic meningoencephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris. Free-living amebae etiologically associated with central nervous system (CNS) infection in children have included Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, and recently, leptomyxid ameba. Two previously healthy children are reported with CNS infection caused by le...

Combs, F.J.; Erly, W.K.; Valentino, C.M.; Rance, N.E., 2011: Best cases from the AFIP: Balamuthia mandrillaris amebic meningoencephalitis. Radiographics 31(1): 31-35

Denney, C.F.; Iragui, V.J.; Uber-Zak, L.D.; Karpinski, N.C.; Ziegler, E.J.; Visvesvara, G.S.; Reed, S.L., 1998: Amebic meningoencephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris: case report and review. Balamuthia mandrillaris, formerly referred to as a leptomyxid ameba, is a free-living ameba that has recently been identified as a cause of meningoencephalitis. Previously, only two genera, Naegleria and Acanthamoeba, were recognized as causes of...

Kinde, H.; Visvesvara, G.S.; Barr, B.C.; Nordhausen, R.W.; Chiu, P.H., 1998: Amebic meningoencephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris (leptomyxid ameba) in a horse. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded brain sections from a Thoroughbred gelding (20 years old) with sudden onset of excessive salivation and staggering, progressing to recumbency within 2 days, were positive for rabbit anti-B. mandrillaris serum. Mic...