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Disposition of azole antifungal agents. II. Hepatic binding and clearance of dichlorophenyl-bis-triazolylpropanol (DTP) in the rat

Disposition of azole antifungal agents. II. Hepatic binding and clearance of dichlorophenyl-bis-triazolylpropanol (DTP) in the rat

Pharmaceutical Research 11(7): 951-960

DTP (dichlorophenyl-bis-triazolylpropanol) was evaluated as a probe of drug-cytochromes P450 interactions in vitro and in vivo. Studies with rat liver microsomes demonstrate that DTP shows similar P450 binding affinity to its analog, ketoconazole, as determined by P450 difference spectra and inhibition of the metabolism of methoxycoumarin. As a more polar azole, DTP shows less affinity for rat plasma albumin (fraction unbound 0.56) than ketoconazole (fraction unbound 0.037). DTP metabolism is simpler than that of ketoconazole, with only one pathway, N-dealkylation which removes a triazole ring to yield DTP glycol. This primary metabolite is further metabolised to a carboxylic acid, a glycol glucuronide and a third unknown secondary metabolite (probably an acid glucuronide). Over a dose range of 0.1-24mg/kg there is complete mass balance recovery in urine via the five metabolites and unchanged drug. However DTP metabolism is dose dependent and while the affinity of DTP for the cytochromes P450 carrying out the initial dealkylation is high (1.5 microM based on unbound blood concentration), the capacity of the reaction is low (1 nmole/min). Under linear conditions, metabolic clearance is low (19ml/h), but ten-fold higher than renal clearance. The liver is the major distribution site for both DTP and ketoconazole. At low DTP concentrations, a specific high affinity process dominates the hepatic binding of DTP resulting in a liver:blood partition coefficient of approximately 30. Hepatic binding is concentration dependent and the progressive decrease in partition coefficient observed as the dose of DTP is escalated is coincident with a decrease in volume of distribution. The two saturable processes involved in the disposition of DTP result in an unusual concentration dependency in the blood concentration-time profile of this azole. Following administration of a high dose (10mg/kg) of DTP the log concentration-time profile is sigmoidal. At high concentrations (above 1mg/L) both the N-dealkylation and the hepatic binding of DTP are saturated, but as concentrations fall to approximately 0.05mg/L the former process becomes linear and the time profile is convex over this concentration range. At later times as DTP concentrations decline further, the tissue binding also reaches the linear region and the time profile becomes concave. Only at low concentrations (below 0.05mg/L) do both processes become first order and the true half life is evident.

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Accession: 002347606

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PMID: 7937554

DOI: 10.1023/a:1018966800208

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