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Ecological studies on the Chinese leek rust in Taiwan



Ecological studies on the Chinese leek rust in Taiwan



Plant Protection Bulletin (Taichung) 35(1): 1-13



Chinese leek rust (Puccinia allii) is quite widespread and serious and causes considerable economic lose in Taiwan. Rust affects leaves and maturing flower stalks which are the edible parts of leek. Rust symptoms first appear as small whitish round to elliptical blisters or pustules which soon turn reddish to dusty orange in color. Heavily infected leaves turn yellow and eventually die. Within a few days, the epidermis covering the pustules is ruptured revealing a powdery mass of brown-red uredospores. Uredia are rounded-rhomboid, often confluent; single uredium slightly raised under epidermis. Uredospores globose to ellipsoid, orange-rust colored; spore wall echinulate, 20.5 apprx 28.2 times 20.0 apprx 28.0 mu-m, with 5-8 germ pores. Telia scattered, occassionally confluent, dark grey to black in color. Teliospores two-celled, dark brown in color, 44.0 apprx 61.7 times 17.9 apprx 26.2 mu-m, cylindrical to obovoid with constriction at septum between cells, detached spores usually with pedicel remnant. Field observation showed that uredia of P. allii usually appears on leek leaves at Ching-Shui area in late September, while at Chi-Chou area, few uredia could be seen until late October. Uredia on leek leaves disappears on late May at these two areas. Rust disease of leek is most prevalent from middle December to early January of next year when the temperature is cooler in Taiwan, When temperature dropped down below 15 degree C , darkened spots containing telia were observed scattering on older pustule portions of leaves and flower stalks of Chinese leek. Telia were produced abundantly on plant from December to January of the next year. Incubation period varies with temperature, it was 10-11 days at 20 degree C , 13-14 days at 12 and 16 degree C . Temperature and relative humidity are two major factors influencing uredospore germination. Temperature favorable for uredospores germination ranged form 8 to 28 degree C with the optimum temperature between 16 and 20 degree C . Germination percentage was 0, 53.5, 64 and 72% after incubation at 16 degree C for 1, 4, 8 and 12 hr, respectively. Teliospores produced under 15 degree C, germinating between 16 and 32 degree C with the optimum temperature at 24 degree C . However, germinability of teliospore was considerably low 13%). High percentage of uredospore germination occurred at -1 to -13.6 bars, no germination was observed at -23.5 bars. Shortest generation time of uredospore production was 145 min at 20 degree C, while it took 237 min at 32 degree C.

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