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Ecology and resistant breeding of peanut rust



Ecology and resistant breeding of peanut rust



Plant Protection Bulletin (Taichung) 34(2): 101-108



In Taiwan, peanut rust caused by Puccinia arachidis Speg. was first reported in 1970 in both spring and fall crops. The disease is most severe on the plants grown in moist soil with high propulation density. Early sown plants in the fall crop and lately sown plants in the spring crop are most easily infected. In the field, the disease generally occurred in the late growing season from lower leaves upward. However plants can be infected at all growing stages by artificial inoculation. Uredospores were germinate between 15 and 30 degree C but 20-25 degree C is optimum. Uredospores were produced 3-4 days after the formation of uredia. Intermittent rain falls with mean relative humidity above 87% and mean temperatures between 23 and 24 degree C for a few days favored disease development. Light was deteriorative to uredospore germination but favored the germ-tube elongation. The presence of free water on the leaf surface was necessary for uredospore germination and infection. So the best time for inoculation is in the evening. No alternate hosts and teliospores were found in Taiwan. Uredospores are mainly disseminated by air from the other area where peanut are grown throught out the year. Many resarchers reported that PI 259747, PI 298115, PI 314817, PI 341879, PI 350680 and breeding line NC13, NC.AC. 17090, EC 76446 are resistant. In 1973 Dr. Sun helped to obtain three resistant accessions were shared from USDA. They were then used in breeding program by back-cross procedures. PI 314817 was used as non-recurrent parent and Tainan NO.6, Tainan select NO.9, Tainan NO.10 were used as recurrent parents and Tainan NO.6, Tainan select NO.9, Tainan NO.10 were used as recurrent parents, Bulk method was used to handle the hybrid progenies. Screening tests were conducted in the field to select promising lines with rust resistance. A preliminary results made in 10 years up to 1983 showed that several lines such as 73(2)-6-26, 74(1)-1-52, 74(1)-1-9, 75(2)-3-21, 78(2)-4-33, 78(2)4-31 and 79(2)-21-62 were more resistant than Tainan NO.9. However, these lines were poor in yield but they may be used as breeding materials. During 1989-1991, four breeding line NS 87197, NS 87183, NS 87188, and NS 88123, were identified as rust resistant with better yield than Tainan NO.11, Five varieties from ICRISA ICGV 86687, ICGV 86023, ICGV 86699, ICGV 86691, ICGV 86694 were more resistant among 24 varieties.

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