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Efficiency of biological/mechanical measures to protect Norway spruce against peeling by deer


, : Efficiency of biological/mechanical measures to protect Norway spruce against peeling by deer. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift 46(7): 367-371

Three methods of protecting stems of Norway spruce against peeling by red deer were compared in several stands in W. Germany: (1) puncturing the bark with the Geil roller; (2) treatment with the Gerstner bark-plane; and (3) treatment with the Black Forest bark-scraper. The study involved 15 stands with 1640 trees, of which 840 were protected against peeling.

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Related references

Ribal, M.N.vak, J., 1970: Experience from the mechanical-biological control of Norway spruce stand bark peeling by deer. Lesnictvi 16 (12) 1077-1094

Knigge, W., 1975: The effect of peeling damage caused by red deer on wood quality of Norway spruce and beech. Forstarchiv 46 (2) 32-38

Koltzenburg, Christa, 1981: Mechanical-biological peeling protection for spruce

Ueckermann, E.; Scholz, H., 1975: The extent of bark peeling by mouflon ovis ammon musimon in spruce stands and the effect of several technical measures to prevent peeling. Zeitschrift fuer Jagdwissenschaft 21(3): 182-190

Huss, J.; Olberg Kalfass, R., 1982: Undesired interactions involving weed control measures and roe deer damage in young Norway spruce plantations. In research plots in Baden-Wurtemberg and Bavaria, 2+3 spruce stock was established in winter 1975/76 and given various combinations of weed-control and game-protection treatments; results are presented of studies of spruce performance made in 198...

Slodicak, M.; Novak, J., 2006: Silvicultural measures to increase the mechanical stability of pure secondary Norway spruce stands before conversion. This study evaluates the effect of two different thinning treatments (2 and 3), and a control without thinning (1), on stand stability of secondary even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands, in relation to the main risk factors of snow and wind...

Ranius, T.; Ekvall, H.; Jonsson, M.; Bostedt, G., 2003: Cost efficiency of measures to increase the amount of coarse woody debris in managed Norway spruce forests. In Swedish forestry, one goal is to maintain biodiversity by increasing the amount of coarse woody debris (CWD), which is an important substrate for red-listed species. In this study, we analyse cost efficiency of five management measures which ai...

Ranius, T.; Ekvall, H.; Jonsson, M.; Bostedt, G., 2005: Cost-efficiency of measures to increase the amount of coarse woody debris in managed Norway spruce forests. Changing silvicultural methods to improve habitat quality for forest organisms has become one of the main means to preserve forest biodiversity in Fennoscandia. In boreal forests, coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important substrate for red-listed...

Koltzenburg, C., 1985: Protection against fraying damage in Norway spruce stands by mechanical/biological means. Studies were made in 191 Picea abies stands where the bark had been artificially damaged so as to prevent damage by red deer. The tools used were the Black Forest bark-scratcher and Gerstner's bark-plane, and the trees treated were mainly 15-...

Vyskot M., 1982: Peeling damage of spruce stands by red deer. Bark peeling damages by red deer, mainly in immature spruce stands, are immense. These damages are often latent because the rot continues spreading even after the wound has healed, leaving such trees vulnerable to snow- and wind-breaks. In the Ple...