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Genetic constraints on mating system evolution in the cleistogamous annual Impatiens pallida: inbreeding in chasmogamous flowers

Genetic constraints on mating system evolution in the cleistogamous annual Impatiens pallida: inbreeding in chasmogamous flowers

Heredity 73(3): 265-274

Each Impatiens pallida individual has both a selfing mode of reproduction (cleistogamy) and a potentially outcrossing mode of reproduction (chasmogamy). The persistence of such a mating heteromorphism is in direct contrast to the theoretical expectation that mixed-mating strategies are evolutionarily unstable. Studies designed to detect fitness advantages of chasmogamous reproduction find only slight differences in the fitness of seed from the two reproductive modes. Inbreeding in chasmogamous flowers could cause these results. This hypothesis was tested by estimating the parameters of the correlated matings model for each of three generations in a natural population of I. pallida using multilocus electrophoretic data from 8934 chasmogamous seed sampled from 1080 individuals. Effective selfing in chasmogamous flowers averaged more than 0.50, changing from 0.66 to 0.54 to 0.48 over three generations. Geitonogamous selfing comprised approximately 80 per cent of this inbreeding in each generation: the remainder was mating among relatives. The correlation of selfing and the correlation of outcrossed paternity within and among the chasmogamous flowers of individuals were moderate in each generation, ranged within +0.11 to +0.21 and changed little over three generations. Individuals that were further from their nearest neighbour or were shorter produced a greater proportion of inbred chasmogamous seed. Those that produced more chasmogamous flowers had higher rates of geitonogamous selfing. Taken together these results are strong evidence that substantial inbreeding occurred in chasmogamous flowers through both geitonogamous selfing and biparental inbreeding, that this inbreeding caused the genetic correlation of chasmogamous sibs to be more similar to the genetic correlation among completely selfed sibs than to the genetic correlation among completely outcrossed sibs, that effective selfing within chasmogamous flowers can change over generations and be influenced by plant architecture and pollinator behaviour, and that chasmogamous flowers of L pallida have a stable, partially selfing mating strategy.

Accession: 002390520

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DOI: 10.1038/hdy.1994.133

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