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Progress in winter triticale breeding in Poland


, : Progress in winter triticale breeding in Poland. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie d'Agriculture de France 78(4): 7-14

European breeders of triticale are working mainly with winter material. Some work on this crop is pursued also in North and South America and in Asia. Poland has however the largest and most successful winter triticale program as well as the world largest growing area of this crop. New varieties are the main moving force for expansion of triticale. Examples from Polish breeding are therefore a good illustration of problems and achievements. Some data on yield and lodging resistance of entries tested in the Eucarpia International Yield Nursery and data from Polish official trials are presented as well as yields of Polish triticale cultivars on soils of different fertility in comparison with standard wheat and rye varieties. Progress in grain yield, lodging resistance and winterhardiness is demonstrated, as well as the still unsatisfactory situation in respect to falling number and sprouting resistance. Breeding methods are discussed with special emphasis on the large range of possible cross-combinations, including wheat and rye. In intraspecific crosses some valuable transgressions may be observed. Taking into account the still existing large and unexploited genetic diversity in triticale and related genera, further important progress in winter triticale breeding can be expected.

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