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Relationship between sensitivity to dietary fat and dietary cholesterol

, : Relationship between sensitivity to dietary fat and dietary cholesterol. Arteriosclerosis 10(3): 394-401

A group of 56 hypercholesterolemic and normocholesterolemic men and women were given approximately 700 mg a day of egg yolk cholesterol in a double-blind, crossover study while they were on a background diet containing approximately 30% of energy as fat. Overall there was a 0.23 mmol/l rise in plasma cholesterol (3.7%, p < 0.001) after 4 weeks, a 0.19 mmol/l rise in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (4.9%, p = 0.002), and a 0.07 mmol/l rise in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (5.4%, p < 0.001). Plasma triglycerides fell by 0.07 mmol/l (5.1%). Normocholesterolemic individuals (plasma cholesterol < 5.2 mmol/l) experienced small, nonsignificant rises of 0.06, 0.02, and 0.05 mmol/l in total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol, respectively. Hypercholesterolemic subjects were classified on the basis of their response to a low fat diet. Diet-sensitive subjects were defined by a > 10% fall in plasma cholesterol on a 25% fat, low cholesterol (< 200 mg/day) diet. These individuals were found to be more responsive to the effect of dietary cholesterol than were diet-insensitive subjects; the respective changes in the two groups were rises of 0.36 mmol/l versus 0.19 mmol/l in plasma cholesterol (p = 0.06) and rises of 0.30 versus 0.15 mmol/l in LDL cholesterol (p = 0.06). In addition to elevating HDL cholesterol by 0.09 mmol/l and 0.07 mmol/l, respectively, dietary cholesterol also produced an increase in the proportion of HDL2, from 40% to 44% of HDL protein (p < 0.001). The change in both LDL and HDL cholesterol with dietary cholesterol supplementation was related to the change with fat supplementation (r = 0.35, p < 0.05 and r = 0.45, p < 0.001, respectively). However, normocholesterolemic individuals who are not particularly responsive to dietary cholesterol may, nevertheless, also need to consider such restrictions, especially if they are at risk for atherosclerosis.

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Accession: 002477973

PMID: 2344298

DOI: 10.1161/01.ATV.10.3.394

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