+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Effect of residual plus applied nitrogen on grain yield of maize in the Highveld Region

Effect of residual plus applied nitrogen on grain yield of maize in the Highveld Region

South African Journal of Plant & Soil 12(3): 99-104

The need in South Africa for nitrogen fertilization guidelines on a more scientific basis was the motivation for the initiation of three field trials in the 1992/93 growing season. Maize yield, as affected by five levels of nitrogen application and three types of legumes, grown in the preceding year, was determined in the 1993/94 season at three localities in the Highveld Region. Residual NO-3-N, to soil depths of 0-300 mm and 0-600 mm, was determined directly after harvest in the 1992/93 season and immediately prior to planting in the 1993/94 season. The average residual NO-3-N (before planting, 0-600 mm) of treatments, preceded by a crop of legumes, was 1.8; 5.3 and 5.7 mg kg-1, respectively, for Vredefort, Wolmaransstad and Argent and 0.5; 4.6 and 3.3 mg kg-1 for treatments preceded by maize, without nitrogen fertilization. The nitrogen advantage of preceding annual legumes was manifested in the nitrate concentrations prior to planting, since data of maize crops grown after a maize crop showed the same relationship between relative yield and residual NO-3-N as did maize grown after annual legumes. The residual NO-3-N before planting accounted for 81% of the variation in relative yield of the treatments where no nitrogen fertilizer was applied, while the residual NO-3-N after harvest accounted for only 34% of the variation in relative yield. The correlations between relative yield and residual NO-3-N to a 600-mm soil depth were always better than residual NO-3-N to 300 mm. Soil samples for the determination of residual NO-3-N should therefore be taken before planting and to a soil depth of 600 mm. Nitrogen application rate could only account for 29% of the variation in relative yield, while 72% of the variation in relative yield could be accounted for by nitrogen application rate plus residual NO-3-N. This is a clear indication that residual NO-3-N can not be ignored in nitrogen fertilizer recommendations. A combination of this data with data from Van der Walt and Du Preez (1991) resulted in a significant empirical relationship where 59% of the variation in relative yield could be accounted for by applied plus residual NO-3-N. This relationship represents data from six seasons and nine localities and can be used for adjusting nitrogen fertilizer recommendations according to residual NO-3-N.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 002604098

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

Related references

Initial and residual effects of nitrogen fertilizers on grain yield of a maize bean intercrop grown on a humic nitosol and the fate and efficiency of the applied nitrogen. Fertilizer Research 23(2): 63-72, 1990

Residual effect of nitrogen applied to maize on yield of barley. 2007

Effect of residual phosphorus applied to forages and nitrogen on maize yield. Crop Research 6(3): 362-369, 1993

The residual effect of nitrogen fertilizers applied to winter rye on the yield of following maize. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych, A Produkcja Roslinna 105(3): 123-135, 1982

Estimating nitrogen fertilizer requirements in maize grain production 1. determination of available soil nitrogen and prediction of grain yield increase to applied nitrogen. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 25(2): 199-206, 1982

Residual effect of nitrogen fertilizers applied for winter rye on the yield of maize cultivated as the second crop. Roczniki nauk rolniczych Seria A Produkcja roslinna05(3): 123-135, 1982

Effect of time of application and nitrate: Ammonium ratio on maize grain yield, grain nitrogen concentration and soil mineral nitrogen concentration in a semi-arid region. Field Crops Research 34(1): 57-70, 1993

Models of yield, grain protein, and residual mineral nitrogen responses to applied nitrogen for winter wheat. Agronomy Journal 91(3): 377-385, 1999

Applied and residual nitrate-nitrogen effects on irrigated grain sorghum yield. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings. 36: 1, 94-97, 1972

Initial and residual effects of nitrogen fertilizers on grain yield of a maize. Fertilizer research: an international journal on fertilizer use and technology 23(2): 63-72, 1990

Yield variations as a function of the seasonal volume of irrigation water applied to maize for grain and maize for forage in the Jonico-Pugliese coastal region. Quaderni de "La Ricerca Scientifica" (99): 170-178, 1977

The residual action of nitrogen fertilizer. Part I. The residual effect of ammonium nitrate applied before sugarbeet on the yield of spring barley. Acta Agraria et Silvestria, Agraria 20: 239-250, 1981

Effects of planting density and nitrogen applied rate on yield of dual-purpose maize for grain and silage. Journal of Maize Sciences 14(2): 119-123, 2006

The residual effect of fertilizer nitrogen applied to potatoes on the yield of following spring barley and the contents of mineral nitrogen in the soil. Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Rolniczo Technicznej w Olsztynie, Rolnictwo (26): 101-107, 1979