+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Entry and release of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus are restricted to apical surfaces of polarized epithelial cells



Entry and release of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus are restricted to apical surfaces of polarized epithelial cells



Journal of Virology 68(12): 7966-7973



The transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) infects the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract of pigs, resulting in a high mortality rate in piglets. This study shows the interaction of TGEV with a porcine epithelial cell line. To determine the site of viral entry, LLC-PK1 cells were grown on permeable filter supports and infected with TGEV from the apical or basolateral side. Initially after plating, the virus was found to enter the cells from both sides. During further development of cell polarity, however, the entry became restricted to the apical membrane. Viral entry could be blocked by a monoclonal antibody to the viral receptor aminopeptidase N. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that this receptor protein was present at both the apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains just after plating of the cells but that it became restricted to the apical plasma membrane during culture. To establish the site of viral release, the viral content of the apical and basolateral media of apically infected LLC-PK1 cells was measured by determining the amount of radioactively labelled viral proteins and infectious viral particles. We found that TGEV was preferentially released from the apical plasma membrane. This conclusion was confirmed by electron microscopy, which demonstrated that newly synthesized viral particles attached to the apical membrane. The results support the idea that the rapid lateral spread of TGEV infection over the intestinal epithelia occurs by the preferential release of virus from infected epithelial cells into the gut lumen followed by efficient infection of nearby cells through the apical domain.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 002612218

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 7966587


Related references

Entry of sv 40 is restricted to apical surfaces of polarized epithelial cells. Molecular & Cellular Biology 8(8): 3391-3396, 1988

Entry of simian virus 40 is restricted to apical surfaces of polarized epithelial cells. Molecular and Cellular Biology 8(8): 3391-3396, 1988

Apical entry and release of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus in polarized Calu-3 lung epithelial cells. Journal of Virology 79(15): 9470-9479, 2005

Coronavirus entry and release in polarized epithelial cells: a review. Reviews in Medical Virology 24(5): 308-315, 2014

Expression of the influenza A virus M2 protein is restricted to apical surfaces of polarized epithelial cells. Journal of Virology 66(9): 5542-5552, 1992

Basic science track. Entry and release of canine coronavirus from polarized epithelial cells. New Microbiologica 34(1): 25-32, 2011

A herpes simplex virus 1 recombinant lacking the glycoprotein G coding sequences is defective in entry through apical surfaces of polarized epithelial cells in culture and in vivo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97(4): 1818-1822, 2000

Infection of polarized epithelial cells with flavivirus West Nile: polarized entry and egress of virus occur through the apical surface. Journal of General Virology 83(Pt 10): 2427-2435, 2002

Polarized entry of bovine coronavirus in epithelial cells. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 380: 375-378, 1995

Expression of SV40 receptors on apical surfaces of polarized epithelial cells. Virology 190(1): 393-402, 1992

Respiratory syncytial virus matures at the apical surfaces of polarized epithelial cells. Journal of Virology 69(4): 2667-2673, 1995

The epidermal growth factor receptor regulates cofilin activity and promotes transmissible gastroenteritis virus entry into intestinal epithelial cells. Oncotarget 7(11): 12206-12221, 2016

Rotavirus nonstructural glycoprotein NSP4 is secreted from the apical surfaces of polarized epithelial cells. Journal of Virology 80(24): 12343-9, 2006

Virus entry and release in polarized epithelial cells. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 202: 209-219, 1995

Cellular immune responses of pigs after primary inoculation with porcine respiratory coronavirus or transmissible gastroenteritis virus and challenge with transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology 48(1-2): 35-54, 1995