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Basis for use strategies of anilinopyrimidine and phenylpyrrole fungicides against Botrytis cinerea


, : Basis for use strategies of anilinopyrimidine and phenylpyrrole fungicides against Botrytis cinerea. Crop Protection 15(6): 529-537

Cyprodinil and fludioxonil are two new active ingredients for the control of Botrytis cinerea, representing the two novel fungicide classes anilinopyrimidines and phenylpyrroles, respectively, with two new and different modes of action. While cyprodinil seems to interfere with the synthesis of certain amino acids, the mode of action of fludioxonil is less well understood. To help design appropriate use recommendations, the risk for resistance in B. cinerea against these two agents was assessed bv establishing baseline sensitivities and by monitoring sensitivity of Botrytis to these two fungicides at various trial sites over a number of years. Monitoring was carried out at three sites in France and at one site in Switzerland where phenylpyrroles and anilinopyrimidines were applied over five years in long-term strategy trials, either twice per season in mixture or once each as a single product in alternation. An additional site in Switzerland was monitored where anilinoyrimidines and phenylpyrroles had been applied three to four times per year in development trials starting in 1986. Monitoring with fludioxonil at all five trials sites over five years included 279 isolates from untreated and 702 isolates from treated plots. This monitoring did not show any changes in sensitivity to fludioxonil. Monitoring with cyprodinil over four years in the four long-term strategy trials included 173 isolates from untreated and 482 isolates from treated plots. It revealed two isolates from France with reduced sensitivity in vitro and in vivo, without however affecting performance of the products. At the site in Switzerland where the development trials were carried out, a higher proportion of isolates with reduced sensitivity to anilinopyrimidines began to appear in 1993, which led to a reduced performance of anilinopyrimidines applied alone in one trial. However, Botrytis control by a mixture of cyprodinil with fludioxonil remained excellent and superior to the standards also in 1994. No cross-resistance exists between cyprodinil and fludioxonil. Also, strains with reduced sensitivity to the market products carbendazim, diethofencarb or vinclozolin showed no cross-resistance to fludioxonil. Other studies had already shown, that cross-resistance exists between cyprodinil and the other two anilinopyrimidines, mepanipyrim and pyrimethanil, but not between anilinopyrimidines and the market products mentioned above. The results of these comprehensive studies form the basis for the use strategy proposed by CIBA for the use of cyprodinil and fludioxonil against Botrytis. A prepacked mixture of the two new active ingredients is being developed and will be introduced worldwide for the control of Botrytis in grapes and vegetables.

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Accession: 002763121

DOI: 10.1016/0261-2194(96)00021-x

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