Bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein B does not productively interact with cell surface heparan sulfate in a pseudorabies virion background

Klupp, B.G.; Karger, A.; Mettenleiter, T.C.

Journal of Virology 71(6): 4838-4841


ISSN/ISBN: 0022-538X
PMID: 9151882
Accession: 002768013

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Attachment to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans is the first step in infection by several alphaherpesviruses. This interaction is primarily mediated by virion glycoprotein C (gC). In herpes simplex virus, in the absence of the nonessential gC, heparan sulfate binding is effected by glycoprotein B. In contrast, gC-negative pseudorabies virus (PrV) infects target cells via a heparan sulfate-independent mechanism, indicating that PrV virion gB does not productively interact with heparan sulfate. To assay whether a heterologous alphaherpesvirus gB protein will confer productive heparan sulfate binding on gC-negative PrV, gC was deleted from an infectious PrV recombinant, PrV-9112C2, which expresses bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) gB instead of PrV gB. Our data show that gC-negative PrV-BHV-1 gB recombinant 9ll2C2. DeltagCbeta, was not inhibited in infection by soluble heparin, in contrast to the gC-positive parental strain. Similar results were obtained when wild-type BHV-1 was compared with a gC-negative BHV-1 mutant. Moreover, infection of cells proficient or deficient in heparan sulfate biosynthesis occurred with equal efficiency by PrV-9112C2-deltagCbeta, whereas heparan sulfate-positive cells showed an approximately fivefold higher plating efficiency than heparan sulfate-negative cells with the parental gC-positive virus. In summary, our data show that in a PrV gC-negative virion background, BHV-1 gB is not able to mediate infection by productive interaction with heparan sulfate, and they indicate the same lack of heparin interaction for BHV-1 gB in gC-negative BHV-1.