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Characterization of DNA synthesis during the 2-cell stage and the production of tetraploid chimeric pig embryos

Characterization of DNA synthesis during the 2-cell stage and the production of tetraploid chimeric pig embryos

Molecular Reproduction and Development 45(1): 38-42

The DNA content of nuclei during the 2-cell stage as well as in presumptive tetraploid embryos was investigated. In vivo produced pig zygotes were cultured to the 2-cell stage and either monitored for cleavage to the 4-cell stage or mounted at various times post-cleavage and DNA content determined. The length of the 2-cell stage was 14.8 +/- 3.0 hr. There was a significant increase in the length of the 2-cell stage due to the time in vitro as a zygote (P < 0.001: R2 = 0.866). The DNA content increased (P < 0.05) each 2 hr postcleavage until 10 hr postcleavage. This suggested that there is a short G1 and G2 phase and a relatively long phase of DNA synthesis. Next, 2-cell stage embryos were pulsed with electricity to induce cell-to-cell fusion. Whereas only about half fused within 30 min (55%), most (96%) developed to the blastocyst stage. The DNA content of the nuclei of the embryos was consistent with them being tetraploid. A final experiment was designed to evaluate the ability of the tetraploid embryo to form a chimera with isolated inner cell mass (ICM) cells. Inner cell masses were isolated from d 6 embryos, cut into thirds, labeled with DiO (a membrane die) and injected into the perivitelline space of 4-cell-stage tetraploid embryos. Twelve of 17 formed blastocysts. In most (8/12), the ICM of the resulting blastocyst was labeled, whereas in one the only fluorescence was in the trophectoderm, and in two fluorescence was evenly distributed between the ICM and trophectoderm. These results suggest that it may be possible to create a fetus derived from ICM cells, or potentially stem cells, that has a tetraploid trophoblast.

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Accession: 002775162

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PMID: 8873067

DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1098-2795(199609)45:1<38::aid-mrd5>3.0.co;2-t

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