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Differences in growth, leaf senescence and injury, and stomatal density in birch (Betula pendula Roth.) in relation to ambient levels of ozone in Finland



Differences in growth, leaf senescence and injury, and stomatal density in birch (Betula pendula Roth.) in relation to ambient levels of ozone in Finland



Environmental Pollution 96(2): 117-127



The differences in growth, leaf senescence, visible ozone injuries and stomatal density between one coastal site (natural ozone) and two inland sites (natural and elevated ozone) in Finland were determined for saplings of Betula pendula clones grown under open-field conditions during two growing seasons. Responses in growth, leaf senescence, visible injuries, and stomatal density were determined in relation to cumulative ozone exposure accumulated over the thresholds of 30, 40 and 50 ppb (10(9)) during the exposure period. In addition, the effects of the different ozone exposures on ultrastructure of chloroplasts were studied. Increasing ozone exposure resulted in reduced shoot dry weight, stimulated (first year) or reduced (second year) height growth, accelerated autumn yellowing of leaves, increased stomatal density, visible symptoms and chloroplast injuries, and increased number and size of plastoglobuli. Newly expanded mature leaves in midsummer were more sensitive to ozone episodes than younger developing leaves in the early growing season. In most parameters, the best correlation was achieved with the exposure index AOT30. Ozone risk for birch is highest in the southern coastal area of Finland, where background ozone concentrations are higher than in inland sites.

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Accession: 002801930

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 15093411

DOI: 10.1016/s0269-7491(97)00034-1


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