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Effect of nitrogen rate on plant nitrogen loss in winter wheat varieties

Effect of nitrogen rate on plant nitrogen loss in winter wheat varieties

Journal of Plant Nutrition 20(2-3): 389-404

ISSN/ISBN: 0190-4167

DOI: 10.1080/01904169709365259

Gaseous nitrogen (N) loss from winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants has been identified, but has not been simultaneously evaluated for several genotypes grown under different N fertility. Two field experiments were initiated in 1993 and 1994 at the Agronomy Research Station in Stillwater and Perkins to estimate plant N loss from several cultivars as a function of N applied and to characterize nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). A total of five cultivars were evaluated at preplant N rates ranging from 30 to 180 kg cntdot ha-1. Nitrogen loss was estimated as the difference between total forage N accumulated at anthesis and the total (grain + straw) N at harvest. Forage, grain, straw yield, N uptake, and N loss increased with increasing N applied at both Stillwater and Perkins. Significant differences were observed among varieties for yield, N uptake, N loss, and components of NUE in forage, grain, straw, and grain + straw. Estimates of N loss over this two-year period ranged from 4.0 to 27.9 kg cntdot ha-1 (7.7 to 59.4% of total forage N at anthesis). Most N losses occurred between anthesis and 14 days post-anthesis. Avoiding excess N application would reduce N loss and increase NUE in winter wheat varieties. Varieties with high harvest index (grain yield/total biomass) and low forage yield had low plant N loss. Estimates of plant loss suggest N balance studies should consider this variable before assuming that unaccounted N was lost to leaching and denitrification.

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