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Isolation of coronaviruses antigenically indistinguishable from bovine coronavirus from wild ruminants with diarrhea

Isolation of coronaviruses antigenically indistinguishable from bovine coronavirus from wild ruminants with diarrhea

Journal of Clinical Microbiology 33(12): 3264-3269

Diarrheal feces from three sambar deer and one waterbuck in a wild animal habitat and one white-tailed deer on a wildlife farm in Ohio contained coronavirus particles which were agglutinated by antiserum to bovine coronavirus (BCV) in immune electron microscopy. Three coronavirus strains were isolated in human rectal tumor cells from the feces of the sambar and white-tailed deer and the waterbuck, respectively. Hemagglutination, receptor-destroying enzyme activity, indirect immunofluorescence, hemagglutination inhibition, virus neutralization, and Western blot (immunoblot) tests showed close biological and antigenic relationships among the isolates and with selected BCV strains. Gnotobiotic and colostrum-deprived calves inoculated with each of these isolates developed diarrhea and shed coronavirus in their feces and from their nasal passages. In a serological survey of coronavirus infections among wild deer, 8.7 and 6.6% of sera from mule deer in Wyoming and from white-tailed deer in Ohio, respectively, were seropositive against both of the isolates and selected BCV isolates by indirect immunofluorescence tests. These results confirm the existence of coronaviruses in wild ruminants and suggest that these species may harbor coronavirus strains transmissible to cattle.

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Accession: 002881092

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PMID: 8586714

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