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The contribution of azodicarbonamide to ethyl carbamate formation in bread and beer


Food Additives and Contaminants 14(1): 101-108
The contribution of azodicarbonamide to ethyl carbamate formation in bread and beer
Data on ethyl carbamate concentrations in beers purchased and analysed between 1988 and 1990 are presented. The concentrations in draught beers were uniformly below the detection limit of 1 microgram/l. Canned beers contained rather more ethyl carbamate (up to 2.5 micrograms/l) which is considered to be due to their longer shelf-life and higher alcohol content (in some cases). Bottled beers contained even higher amounts of ethyl carbamate (up to 14.7 micrograms/l) and this was considered to be due to the use of azodicarbonamide as a blowing agent in the beer bottle cap liners. It is understood that modifications to the liner have led to reduced concentrations in bottled beers produced more recently. A survey of bread samples and related cereal products such as rusks, French toasts and pitta bread indicated typical ethyl carbamate concentrations between < 0.4 and 4.5 micrograms/kg. Toasting bread led to increases of between three- and eight-fold in ethyl carbamate concentrations ranging from 3.5 to 33.8 micrograms/kg on a wet weight basis. Analysis of the data indicated that commercial bread samples which indicated the use of azodicarbonamide as a flour improver showed statistically significant increases in ethyl carbamate concentrations. The mean increase for treated bread over untreated bread was 66%. When these breads were toasted, the mean increase for treated toast over untreated toast was 56%.


Accession: 002980836

PMID: 9059589

DOI: 10.1080/02652039709374503



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