EurekaMag.com logo
+ Site Statistics
References:
52,725,316
Abstracts:
28,411,598
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
EurekaMag Most Shared ContentMost Shared
EurekaMag PDF Full Text ContentPDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full TextRequest PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter
Follow on Google+Follow on Google+
Follow on LinkedInFollow on LinkedIn

+ Translate

The contribution of repellent soap to malaria control


American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 56(5): 580-584
The contribution of repellent soap to malaria control
A study about the acceptability, protective efficacy, effectiveness, and cost of a repellent soap containing 20% diethyltoluamide and 0.5% permethrin was carried out on the Pacific coast of Ecuador and Peru, where malaria is endemic and the transmission is seasonal. The malaria vectors were Anopheles albimanus, An. punctimacula, and An. pseudopunctipennis in Ecuador and An. albimanus in Peru. Comparing the hourly mosquito bites on human subjects with and without the protection of the repellent soap, it showed that inactive, protected subjects were bitten 94.2% less than unprotected controls 2 hr after application of the soap. This protective efficacy was reduced to 81% after 6 hr. In persons physically active for 3 hr after application, the efficacy of the soap was 67% in the fourth hour after application and 52% in the sixth hour after application. Sweating decreased the protective efficacy of the soap even more. In a community-based malaria control program, the soap was introduced by community health promoters. Acceptance was good when it was given free of charge but reduced dramatically when it was sold. People used the soap mainly because of the nuisance of mosquitoes. The application was generally done correctly. However, no significant impact on the incidence of malaria episodes could be shown when comparing intervention communities with control communities, either in Ecuador, where the proportion of Plasmodium falciparum cases was high, or in Peru, where P. vivax was the only species of Plasmodium seen. This can probably be explained by the limited use of soap and the shift of mosquito bites from users to nonusers of the repellent soap. The cost of a soap program would be $4.60 (USA) per person per year, which seems to be quite high in terms of cost of soap and its distribution related to people's low cash income. The implications of the introduction of repellent soap into a control program are discussed.


Accession: 002980866

PMID: 9180612



Related references

Repellent soap for use against malaria vectors in Papua New Guinea. Papua and New Guinea Medical Journal 30(4): 301-303, 1987

Field village scale trial of use of repellent in malaria control. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences 38(10): 201-203, 1984

People's perceptions about malaria transmission and control using mosquito repellent plants in a locality in Zimbabwe. Central African Journal of Medicine 45(3): 64-68, 1999

New repellent effective against African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae: implications for vector control. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 30(4): 369-376, 2016

Soap as a deer repellent--negative results from Minnesota. Annual report of the Northern Nut Growers Association: 9th) 92-96, 1988

Evaluation of the activity of a soap containing a repellent and a pyrethroid on man and mosquito nets. Le paludisme en Afrique de l' ouest: etudes entomologiques et epidemiologiques en zone rizicole et en milieu urbain: 97-105, 1991

Malaria outbreak control in an African village by community application of 'deet' mosquito repellent to ankles and feet. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 16(1): 112-115, 2002

Malaria outbreak control in an African village by community application of 'deet' mosquito repellent to ankles and feet. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 16(1): 112-115, 2002

Insect repellent soap composition us patent 4707496 november 17 1987. 1987

History of malaria research and its contribution to the malaria control success in Suriname: a review. Malaria Journal 11: 95-95, 2012