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The protein kinase, protein phosphatase and inhibitor protein of nitrate reductase are ubiquitous in higher plants and independent of nitrate reductase expression and turnover


The protein kinase, protein phosphatase and inhibitor protein of nitrate reductase are ubiquitous in higher plants and independent of nitrate reductase expression and turnover



Planta 99(1): 57-63



ISSN/ISBN: 0032-0935

DOI: 10.1007/bf00196881

Nitrate reductase activity and NR protein levels in various leaf tissues were drastically decreased (< 3.5% of normal activity) either by keeping detached leaves in continuous darkness for up to 6 d (spinach), or by growing plants (pea, squash) hydroponically on ammonium as the sole N-source, or by germinating and growing etiolated seedlings in complete darkness (squash). The presence of nitrate reductase protein kinase (NRPK), nitrate reductase protein phosphatase (NRPP) and inhibitor protein (IP) was examined by measuring the ability of NR-free desalted extracts to inactivate (ATP-dependent) and reactivate (5'-AMP/EDTA-dependent) added purified spinach NR in vitro. Extracts from low-NR plants (ammonium-grown pea and squash) were also prepared from leaves harvested at the end of a normal light or dark phase, or after treating leaves with anaerobiosis, uncouplers or mannose, conditions which usually activate NR in nitrate-grown normal plants. Without exception, extracts from NR-deficient plant tissues were able to inactivate and reactivate purified spinach NR with normal velocity, irrespective of pretreatment or time of harvest. Considerable NRPK, NRPP and IP activities were also found in extracts from almost NR-free ripe fruits (cucumber and tomato). Activities were totally absent, however, in extracts from isolated spinach chloroplasts. The NRPK and IP fractions were partially purified with normal yields from NR-deficient squash or spinach leaves, following the purification protocol worked out for nitrate-grown spinach. The Ca2+/Mg2+-dependent kinase fraction from NR-deficient squash or spinach phosphorylated added purified spinach NR with gamma-[32P]ATP and inactivated the enzyme after addition of IP. It is suggested (i) that the auxiliary proteins (NRPK, IP, NRPP) which modulate NR are rather species- or organ-unspecific, (ii) that they do not turn over as rapidly as does NR, (iii) that they are probably expressed independently of NR, and (iiii) that they are not covalently modulated, but under control of metabolic and/or physical signals which are removed by desalting.

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Accession: 002992588

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The protein kinase, protein phosphatase and inhibitor protein of nitrate reductase are ubiquitous in higher plants and independent of nitrate reductase expression and turnover. Planta 199(1): 57-63, 1996

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