+ Translate
+ Most Popular
Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in China
Mammalian lairs in paleo ecological studies and palynology
Studies on technological possibilities in utilization of anhydrous milk fat for production of recombined butter-like products
Should right-sided fibroelastomas be operated upon?
Large esophageal lipoma
Apoptosis in the mammalian thymus during normal histogenesis and under various in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions
Poissons characoides nouveaux ou non signales de l'Ilha do Bananal, Bresil
Desensitizing efficacy of Colgate Sensitive Maximum Strength and Fresh Mint Sensodyne dentifrices
Administration of fluid by subcutaneous infusion: revival of a forgotten method
Tundra mosquito control - an impossible dream?
Schizophrenia for primary care providers: how to contribute to the care of a vulnerable patient population
Geochemical pattern analysis; method of describing the Southeastern limestone regional aquifer system
Incidence of low birth weights in a hospital of Mexico City
Graded management intensity of grassland systems for enhancing floristic diversity
Microbiology and biochemistry of cheese and fermented milk
The ember tetra: a new pygmy characid tetra from the Rio das Mortes, Brazil, Hyphessobrycon amandae sp. n. (Pisces, Characoidei)
Risk factors of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients after coronary artery intervention
Renovation of onsite domestic wastewater in a poorly drained soil
Observations of the propagation velocity and formation mechanism of burst fractures caused by gunshot
Systolic blood pressure in a population of infants in the first year of life: the Brompton study
Haematological studies in rats fed with metanil yellow
Studies on pasteurellosis. I. A new species of Pasteurella encountered in chronic fowl cholera
Dormancy breaking and germination of Acacia salicina Lindl. seeds
therapy of lupus nephritis. a two-year prospective study

Ammonia volatilization from dairy farming systems in temperate areas: a review

Ammonia volatilization from dairy farming systems in temperate areas: a review

Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 51(1): 19-33

ISSN/ISBN: 1385-1314

DOI: 10.1023/a:1009747109538

Ammonia (NH3) emissions from dairy farm systems cause environmental problems. This paper reviews and quantifies the major loss routes of NH3 in dairy farms. Furthermore, management options are discussed that reduce NH3 losses. Losses of NH3 occur during slurry application, housing, slurry storage, grazing, fertilizer application and from crops, in descending order of importance. Animal waste is the major source in four of the six cases. This ranking varies between farms and between countries, depending on environmental conditions and management practices. Total NH3 losses range from 17 to 46 kg N cow yr-1, reflecting the variability in amount and composition of animal excreta (urine + faeces), management of the slurry and soil and environmental conditions. The amount and composition of urine and faeces depend on N tranformations in the digestive track of the cow. Of the major nitrogen compounds excreted urea has the highest potential for NH3 volatilization followed by allantoin, uric acid and creatinine in decreasing order. Creatine, xanthine and hypoxanthine have a low NH3 volatilization potential. Reducing the excretion of urea and urea like products by optimizing N Intake (NI) and N Retention (NR) is one way of decreasing NH3 losses. Improvement is possible since NR is about 20% of NI in practice, whereas 43% is theoretically possible. The second solution is to reduce the rate of NH3 loss by technical means like direct incorporation of slurry into the soil, dilution or acidification of slurry, covering of the slurry storage and/or acidification or dilution of slurry in the storage. These techniques have been known for a long time and now become available on a large scale in practice. Reducing the surface area per cow in the shed and sprinkling floors with water to remove and to dilute urine also decreases NH3 loss. Reducing NH3 loss requires a whole farm system approach, because it shows how intervening in one part may affect NH3 losses in other parts of the system. Reducing NH3 loss may increase nitrate leaching and denitrification. To prevent this, the achieved reduction in NH3 loss should lead to a reduction of total N input of fertilizers, concentrates and forage on the N budget of the farm, which is possible as a reduction of NH3 loss improves the N fertilizing value of slurry. Model calculations showed great scope for reducing NH3 losses on dairy farms by improved management. Up to three fold reductions in NH3 loss are possible together with marked reductions in mineral fertilizer usage. The rate at which improved management techniques, will be introduced in practice depends on legislation, the applicability of new techniques and the expected increase in net production costs. To comply with environmental targets requires a huge effort of farmers with associated high costs.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 003036575

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

Related references

Climate-change effects and adaptation options for temperate pasture-based dairy farming systems a review. Grass and Forage Science, 2013

Ammonia volatilization mitigation in crop farming: a review of fertilizer amendment technologies and mechanisms. Chemosphere 303(Part 1): 134944, 2022

Annual pasture legumes for farming systems in cool-temperate areas with summer soil moisture deficits. Legumes for dryland pastures Proceedings of a New Zealand Grassland Association Inc Symposium held at Lincoln University, 18-19 November 2003: 149-154, 2003

Cropping systems and farming land space organisation: a comparison between temperate and tropical farming systems. Cahiers Agricultures 15(3): 255-260, 2006

Managing farming systems for nitrate control: a research review from management systems evaluation areas. Journal of Environmental Quality 30(6): 1866-1880, 2001

Reduction of ammonia volatilization from poultry and dairy manure. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 72(3): 348, 1992

Ammonia volatilization from dairy farms: experiments and model. Gaseous nitrogen emissions from grasslands: 123-130, 1997

Adaptation strategies based on the historical evolution for dairy production systems in temperate areas: A case study approach. Agricultural Systems 182: 102841, 2020

Ammonia volatilization from dairy manure spread on the soil surface. Journal of Environmental Quality 5(2): 134-140, 1976

Volatilization of ammonia from dairy housing floors with different surface characteristics. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 72(1): 59-69, 1999

Ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy cattle manure in the field. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 62(1): 11-20, 1982

Dairy farming and dairy cattle in temperate and tropical zones. Indian veterinary journal 47(7): 521-538, 1970

Adaptation of an ammonia volatilization model for a naturally ventilated dairy building. Atmospheric Environment (1994) 42(18): 4345-4354, 2008

Adaptation of an ammonia volatilization model for a naturally ventilated dairy building. Atmospheric Environment: 18, 4345-4354, 2008

Calf rearing systems in smallholder dairy farming areas of Zimbabwe: A diagnostic study of the Nharira-Lancashire area. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 12(1): 68-76, 1999