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Further validation of antibody-capture and antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for determining exposure of cattle to bovine coronavirus



Further validation of antibody-capture and antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for determining exposure of cattle to bovine coronavirus



American Journal of Veterinary Research 59(8): 956-960



Objective-To further validate an antibody-capture ELISA for measuring bovine coronavirus (BCV) exposure (antibody seroresponse) in cattle and to explain the apparent loss of sensitivity of a BCV antigen-capture ELISA when testing feces from adult versus neonatal cattle. Animals-98 adult cows from herds with and without winter dysentery; 10 gnotobiotic or colostrum-deprived calves. Procedures-Results of an antibody-capture ELISA for BCV and a plaque reduction virus neutralization assay performed on paired serum samples from 24 cattle were compared with each other and with results of immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) of feces for BCV. For samples from 98 cattle, results of antibody-capture ELISA were compared with results of IEM. Calves were inoculated with feces ELISA-positive or IEM-positive for BCV and monitored for BCV infection. An ELISA was developed to detect BCV antigen-antibody complexes in feces and results were compared with results of an antigen-capture ELISA and IEM. Results-Antibody-capture ELISA results correlated with neutralization assay results, but agreed more closely with results of IEM. Calves became infected with BCV following inoculation with either ELISA-positive or ELISA-negative but IEM-positive feces. Results of the antigen-antibody ELISA correlated with results of IEM and the antigen-capture ELISA. Clinical Implications-In adult cattle, testing of paired serum samples by use of an antibody-capture ELISA may be a better indicator of recent BCV exposure than results of virus neutralization tests. Antigen-antibody binding in feces may interfere with results of antigen-capture ELISA for BCV.

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Accession: 003148291

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PMID: 9706198


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